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What happened in 1066
Battle of Hastings
The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold II, during the Norman conquest of England.
What happened during 1215?
Anchor: Hope and salvation
Dove: peace and the holy spirit
Shepherd: Jesus tends to his followers
- Blue: corporeal
- Red: Divine
Orante (orans): Praying figure with open arms = the soul which lives in divine peace
What is Romanesque?
Enshrined relics brought back from the crusades
- Reliquaries attracted pilgrims
- Stone barrel arches (old design, heavy)
- Groin arches
- Vaulted ceilings in the nave and side aisles
- All stone construction
- Scenes from old and new testament also daily life
- Stone sculptures
- Designs remind christians of sin, death, judgement, or to honor royalty and saints
what is gotic?
- Termed “Gothic” in the 17th century as a derogatory tern Goth= barbarian
- Floor plan still Romanesque cross
- Combination of stone ribbed vaults and pointed arches
- Lateral buttressing, lighter, airier
- Exterior embellishments:
- Crockets: stylized leaves
- Gargoyles and grotesques
- Read by Illustration
- Allegories , stories, moral teaching
- Stained glass
what is Chivalry?
- How a Knight Should Behave
- Becoming a Knight was a ritual process:
- Page (fostering)
- Squire (apprenticeship with the knight you serve; chances to prove yourself)
1. Religious Commitment:
- Obey Ten Commandments
- Obey Teachings of Christ
- Obey Christian Doctrine
2. Political Commitment:
- The King or Liege Lord must be obeyed. To serve your liege lord is to serve God
- All “battle arts” entail this service: showing strength, loyalty, bravery, and skill.
3. Social Commitments
Excellent manners toward:
What is courtly love?
A Knight’s motivation
- Was less for glory for himself and more to win his lady’s love
- It inspires him to do great deeds, even if the love is
- These deeds are called “love service.”
What are some Medieval Romances?
- Latin translation of Homer’s The Iliad
- Virgil’s The Aeneid
- Ovid’s The Metamorphoses
what are The cynics?
- Material things won’t make you happy, no matter what others say.
- Don’t bother about your own problems or those of others.
- TODAY, a cynic is someone who doubts the sincerity and/or motives of others
What are the Epicureans?
- The prime good is Pleasure, which is the AVOIDANCE of suffering.
- He was a MATERIALIST
- There is NO FATE
- Instead, we should aim for inner peace by banishing religion and fear of death.
Hellenism in Alexandria: advances in science
- Conquered lands from Persia east to India and south to Indian Ocean
- Had army of 35,000
- Superior weapons included catapult and battle rams
- Alexander’s Empire: a time of syncretism ( a fusion of beliefs from around the “world”)
- Alexander’s empire was breaking up; the Romans were taking over.
- In this interim period, the greatest city was Alexandria, in Egypt
who is Paul?
- a Jew who spoke both Greek and Hebrew and who became a follower of Jesus shortly after his crucifixion.
- Paul wrote 14 of the 27 books of the New Testament
- He referred to Jesus as “Christos,” Greek for “Messiah.”
- Jesus, a real man, was a living sacrifice who died for our sins.
What is Original sin?
- Adam’s sin condemned mankind.
- Jesus, the “new Adam,” redeems mankind.
Describe Black Death
- Called the black death because of black patches that appeared on people’s skin
- Started in Asia and traveled to Europe
Spread by rats/fleas (on a boat), silk road
Estimated to have killed 30-60% of Europeans
- Decline in trade
- increase in crime
- more jobs available
- took 150 years for Europe’s population to recover
What are the Hundred Years War
Was a series of conflicts in 1337-1453 for control of France vs. England
- Causes of War
- The crown of France was vacant and the English king along with his French rivals claimed the crown
- Crecy: 1346, Took place near Crecy in northwest France. -> War between England Roman empire vs. France-> England Won long bows helped with the win
- Formigny: 1450 took place in France. War began because a peace treaty was broke. England vs. France….france won-> they had cannons
- Agincourt: 1415 took place in France. England vs. France. England won-> long bows helped
- Military technology:
- Long Bows
- Gun powder
- Consequences of the wars
- Farmlands were destroyed
- England becomes a naval power
What are the Crusades?
The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Latin Roman Catholic Church during the High Middle Ages and Late Middle Ages. In 1095 Pope Urban II proclaimed the First Crusade with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to holy places in and near Jerusalem.
They were fought to take back christian and holy places
- Increased wealth in the church
- Helped breakdown feudalism
- Spread disease
- stopped muslium advances
- Introduced goods and classical new ideas to the west
Whats is the Norman Invasion?
- One of the most significant events in British history because it linked England more closely to continental Europe, created on of the most powerful monarchies in Europe, last successful military conquest of England
- Normandy invaded England
The cause of the war was vikings invaded northern England
- Consequences of the new Norman rule:
- Eliminated slavery
- Changed English language and culture
- Problems Barons had with King John
- He lost Normandy
- Made them pay taxes for wars John lost
Up the River Thames 20 miles from London lies Runnymede, where King John in 1215 fixed his seal to a strip of parchment that Winston Churchill later called "the most famous milestone of our rights and freedom." That document was Magna Carta (Great Charter).
The Magna Carta was the first document imposed upon a King of England by a group of his subjects, the feudal barons, in an attempt to limit his powers by law and protect their rights.
The Magna Carta was important because guaranteed the people certain rights, and bound the king to certain laws. It also begins the idea of parliament
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377, during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon, in France, rather than in Rome. This situation arose from the conflict between the Papacy and the French crown.
From 1378-1417 two men claimed to be the true pope and later a there was a third pope that was suppose to take the title so the council of constance ended the papacy by eliminating all three popes and then they elected a new pope who finally returned the papacy back to Rome.
Church structure and importance
Most medieval Europeans belonged to the Roman catholic church
The church is powerfully because what they say is law, taxes, they are extremely wealthy, had own courts, laws, and ambassadors
Medieval church hierarchy: The pope-> cardinals-> archbishops-> bishops-> priests-> nuns-> monks
Monasteries were culturally important because they established schools, provided logging for travelers, provided government leadership
Medieval power structure pope-> King-> church-> nobles-> knights-> serfs
social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.
The Division of Christianity
Constantine established Christianity as a state religion and needed a unified church for a unified empire
He and Rome had to deal w/ a series of controversies
Controversy I: *The Arian Controversy
- Position A:
- Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are 1 substance in 3 persons
- Position B:
- Father and Son are different.
- *Council of Nicea
- Met to decide whether Christ was just a man or was he part of god?
- 1. Drafted *nicene creed to affirm unity of god
- 2. Established rules for excommunication from church
- 3. Promoted construction of new buildings and common ritual within them
- *Controversy II: Salvation
- How is man saved? Is he essentially good or evil?
- A: Human nature is essentially good.
- B: Man is born with original sin.
*Controversy III: May Christians venerate icons?
- A: Bread and wine are the only true image of Christ.
- B: Human art and relics may hold and contain divinity.
Spilt between east and west
- Ravenna & Rome
- Religious leaders selected locally
- Pope heads church
- Western monks more isolated from society
- Rome never agreed to Eastern equal status at Chalcedon
- Celibate clergy
- Sent out missionaries
- Conflict w/pagans
- Heir to jerusalem because popes trace lineage to peter, the “rock”
- Religious leaders appointed by emperor
- Patriarch heads church
- Monasteries involved in society
- Believed Chalcedon gave Constantinople “privileges equal to those of Rome”
- Married clergy
- Did not send out missionaries
- Conflict w/islam
- Heir to jerusalem because they had fragment of true cross
The Nicene Creed was first adopted in A.D. 325 at the Council of Nicea. The Roman Emperor Constantine had convened the Council of Nicea in an attempt to unify the Christian church with one doctrine, especially on the issues of the Trinity and the deity and humanity of Jesus Christ. The Nicene Creed reads as follows:
I believe in one God, the Father almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible.
What is a Catacomb?
- Network of underground galleries and chambers
- Private rites and burials
- Concealed fugitives
- (LOCULI openings like shelves for the dead)
- (CUBICULA small rooms decorated with frescoes)
- East/west orientation for sun rising behind altar
- Plain exterior; rich interior
- Nave opens from entry
- Apse (end with altar)
- Narthex = vestibule
- 2 or 4 long parallel rows of columns surrounded by an outer wall separated from the columns by an aisle
- Central space had clerestory; side aisles low roofs
Characteristics of Christian Art and Architecture
- Very little sculpture
- Graven images: A carved idol or representation of a god used as an object of worship
- Dislike classical art (immortal)
- Didactic: teaches a lesson
- Coptic influence: art from Egypt
- Large heads
- Shortened bodies
- Big eyes
REVERSE PERSPECTIVE: larger figures in the back, smaller in the front
Church of San Vitale, Ravenna
- Church of the Holy Wisdom
- Built 532-537 AD
- Domed basilica
- Towers added late
- Set aside for baptisms
- Round or polygonal
- Topped with a dome
- Separate from basilica
- Based on Pantheon
- Designed to humiliate conquered slaves
- as they marched through them
- Commemorated victories
- Often highly decorated