Chem230 exam 4 (part 1)

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melissag94
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Chem230 exam 4 (part 1)
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2014-11-19 20:34:30
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Chapter 16 Carbohyrdates Fall 2014
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  1. major source of energy from our diet composed of the elements C, H and O
    carbohydrates
  2. aka saccharides? saccharides means?
    • carbohydrates
    • sugars
  3. carbohydrates are a form of
    energy
  4. the simplest carbohydrates
    monosaccharides
  5. consists of 2 monosaccharides
    disaccharides
  6. consist of 3-10 monosaccharides
    oligosaccharides
  7. contains many monosaccharides
    polysaccharides
  8. basic formula of monosaccharide?
    (CH2O)n
  9. 3-6 carbon atoms with a carbonyl group and several hydroxyl groups
    monosaccharides
  10. monosaccharides with an aldehyde group and many hydroxyl groups
    aldoses
  11. triose?
    3C atoms
  12. tetrose?
    4C atoms
  13. pentose?
    5C atoms
  14. hexose?
    6 C atoms
  15. monosaccharides with a ketone group and many hydroxyl groups
    ketoses
  16. bonded to 4 different things
    chiral carbon
  17. it is not a chiral carbon if?
    it is bonded to 2 of the same thing
  18. ex of chiral objects?
    your hands
  19. the ___ ___ of chiral compounds cannot be superimposed
    mirror images
  20. take mirror image and rotate, it will match up
    achiral carbon
  21. achiral structures are
    superimposable
  22. left and right is an example of
    chiral
  23. examples of chiral objects?
    • gloves
    • golf club
    • sneakers
    • scissors
  24. examples of achiral objects?
    • soccer ball
    • glass cup
  25. need ___ carbons to be enantiomers
    chiral
  26. stereoisomers that are mirror images
    enantiomers
  27. stereoisomers that are not mirror images
    diastereomers
  28. need chiral carbons
    enantiomers
  29. enantiomers are also called
    optical isomers
  30. interact with plain polarized light to rotate the plane of the light in opposite directions
    enantiomers
  31. interaction with polarized light is called
    optical activity
  32. what distinguishes isomers?
    optical activity
  33. same formula, different structure
    isomers
  34. mix of 2 enantiomers, mirror images around that carbon
    racemic mixture
  35. racemic mixtures are an
    equal mix of 2 enantiomers
  36. fischer projections always end in
    CH2OH
  37. places the most oxidized group at the top
    fischer projections
  38. most oxidized group in fischer projections?
    aldehyde or ketone--placed at the top
  39. OH group on left =
    L
  40. OH group on right =
    D
  41. horizontal lines? vertical lines?
    • towards you
    • back away from you
  42. most oxidized carbon is always found where on a fischer projection?
    at the top
  43. tells you which way it bends to polar light
    L and D
  44. how do you determine L or D?
    go to lowest chiral carbon
  45. structure of D glucose?
    RLRR
  46. with ketones CH2OH is found?
    on top and on bottom
  47. determined by number of chiral carbons
    configurations
  48. D-galactose structure?
    RLLR
  49. D-fructose structure?
    LRR
  50. found in fruits, corn syrup and honey
    d-glucose
  51. known as blood sugar in the body
    d-glucose
  52. glucose has a normal blood level of
    70-90 mg/dl
  53. is a ketohexose
    D-fructose
  54. the sweetest carb found in fruit juices and honey
    d-fructose
  55. is an aldohexose
    d-galactose
  56. has similar structure to glucose except for the -OH on carbon 4
    D-galactose
  57. the prevalent form of monosaccharides with 5 or 6 carbon atoms
    cyclic structures
  58. when do cyclic structures form?
    when the hydroxyl group on C5 reacts with the aldehyde group or ketone group
  59. anameric carbon?
    1st carbon used to determine alpha or beta
  60. OH is down on anameric carbon?
    alpha
  61. OH is up on anameric carbon?
    beta
  62. what makes up a hemiacetal?
    aldehyde + alcohol
  63. hemiacetals?
    • glucose
    • galactose
  64. hemiketal?
    fructose
  65. ketone plus alcohol is?
    hemiketal
  66. hemiketals have no __ on central atom
    H
  67. glucose and galactose differ only in the orientation of ?
    one hydroxyl group
  68. does not form a positive benedicts test
    sucrose
  69. 3 reducing sugars?
    • glucose
    • galactose
    • fructose
  70. the aldehyde groups of aldoses are oxidized by benedicts reagent which is?
    an alkaline copper (II) solution
  71. when reducing sugars what goes from what?
    copper 2 goes to copper 1
  72. fructose gives a ___ benedicts test
    positive
  73. goes through a reaction where is becomes an aldehyde
    fructose
  74. when an aldehyde is oxidized what happens?
    carb acid reacts with copper for benedicts and copper gets reduced
  75. all monosaccharides and disaccharides except sucrose are
    reducing sugars
  76. can isomerize to aldoses and react also
    ketoses
  77. the most important reduced sugar is
    deoxyribose
  78. involves the carbonyl group and produces sugar alcohols or alditols
    reduction of monosaccharides
  79. when reducing monosaccharides the top C goes to
    CH2OH
  80. when oxidizing monosaccharides the top group goes to
    C=0 and OH bonded to C
  81. glucose + glucose =
    maltose
  82. glucose + galactose =
    lactose
  83. glucose + fructose =
    sucrose
  84. disaccharide of beta-D-galactose and alpha or beta-D-glucose
    lactose
  85. found in milk and milk products
    lactose
  86. the main carb in milk, which is composed of both a cyclic hemicetal and a cyclic acetal
    lactose
  87. aka table sugar
    sucrose
  88. in order for lactose to be used as an energy source galactose must be converted to a phosphorylated glucose molecule. when enzymes necessary for conversion are absent, the genetic disease ___ results
    galactosemia
  89. consists of beta-D-glucose and beta-D-fructose
    sucrose
  90. has a beta-1,2-glycosidic bond
    sucrose
  91. polymers of D-glucose that include glycogen
    polysaccharides
  92. made of alpha-D-glucose
    glycogen
  93. made of beta-D-glucose
    cellulose
  94. a polymer of alpha-D-glucose molecules and is linked by alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds
    amylose
  95. amylose is a
    continuous chain
  96. has a alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond between glucose units and a alpha-1,6 bond to branches
    amylopectin
  97. the polysaccharide that stores alpha-D-glucose in muscle
    glycogen
  98. a polysaccharide of glucose units in unbranched chains
    cellulose
  99. cannot be digested by humans
    cellulose

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