A&P 1 exam 4 (part 2)

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A&P 1 exam 4 (part 2)
2014-11-19 21:40:44
anatomy physiology fall 2014

The Central Nervous System Fall 2014
Show Answers:

  1. the CNS is composed of
    brain and spinal cord
  2. gives varied responses and processes all sensory info
  3. area where cell bodies of neurons in the center
    gray matter
  4. have 2 dorsal and 2 ventral honrs
    gray matter
  5. processes for neurons
    white matter
  6. neurons are found
    in gray and white matter
  7. gray matter holds?
    cell body
  8. white matter holds?
  9. spinal cord is organized into
    gray and white matter
  10. major divisions of spinal cord?
    • dorsal sensory
    • ventral motor
  11. dorsal sensory has?
    association neurons
  12. ventral motor has
    cell bodies with motor neurons
  13. __ and __ are kept separate
    sensory and motor
  14. major subdivisions of spinal cord?
    • somatic sensory and visceral sensory
    • visceral motor and somatic motor
  15. makes processing of info a lot easier
    keep somatic and visceral sensory separate
  16. visceral somatic is adjacent to
    visceral motor
  17. somatic sensory is not directly adjacent to
    somatic motor
  18. tight knit cells with a single layer of cells that form tube
    neural tube
  19. neural tube is aka
  20. individual cells free to migrate through embryo
    neural crest
  21. neural crest is aka
  22. represents gray matter of CNS
    mantle layer
  23. thickens wall of neural tube by adding more cells
    mantle layer
  24. cell bodies grow axons which run on outside of mantle layer
    marginal layer
  25. gives rise to white matter of CNS
    marginal layer
  26. regions of the mantle layer?
    • roof plate
    • floor plate
    • sulcus limitans
    • alar plates
    • basal plate
  27. seperates 2 dorsal expansions of mantle layer
    roof plate
  28. separates left and right ventral expansions of mantle layer
    floor plate
  29. seperates dorsal and ventral expansions in middle of mantle layer
    sulcus limitans
  30. 2 dorsal swellings where fibers enter into white matter and is associated with sensory neurons in mantle layer
    alar plates
  31. cell bodies for all motor neurons found here and axons grow out ventral root and to body they transmit signal to in mantle layer
    basal plate
  32. supporting cells
  33. epithelial cells that line the central canal and give rise to ALL of cells in CNS
    ependymal cells
  34. sensory neurons derived from
    neural crest
  35. first 3 divisions of brain?
    • prosencephalon
    • mesencephalon
    • rhombenchephalon
  36. anterior most expansion aka forebrain
  37. aka midbrain
  38. continuous with spinal chord and is aka hindbrain
  39. must pass through hindbrain and midbrain to get to
  40. this type of arrangement always remains
  41. 1st 5 divisions?
    • telencephalon
    • diencephalon
    • mesencephalon
    • melercephalon
    • myelencephalon
  42. forebrain is split into?
    telencephalon and diencephalon
  43. front part of forebrain
  44. posterior part of forebrain and where the eyeball grows from
  45. does not subdivide
    mesencephalon aka midbrain
  46. hindbrain is split into ?
    melencephalon and myelencephalon
  47. anterior hindbrain
  48. posterior hindbrain
  49. expanded regions of central canal in brain
  50. C-shaped and found in telencephalon
    lateral ventricle
  51. found in diencephalon
    third ventricle
  52. are continuous with each other and both are found in forebrain
    lateral and third ventricle
  53. expansion in hindbrain that is continuous with central canal of spinal cord
    fourth ventricle
  54. expanded roof plate in hindbrain
    choroid plexus
  55. secreted in choroid plexus
    cerebrospinal fluid
  56. receive general sensation of head and face
    somatic sensory
  57. 1st association center with hearing
    somatic sensory
  58. sensations of throat and mouth, 1st association center taste
    visceral sensory
  59. innervate branchial muscle, smooth muscle of gut (splanchnic)
    visceral motor
  60. innervate muscles of tongue
    somatic motor
  61. function of myencephalon?
    • sensory and motor function associated with head and gut
    • some cardiovascular control, reticular formation
  62. ____ ____ info can be processed and sent to other areas of brain
    association centers
  63. structure of medulla oblongata?
    • anterior view, 2 raised ridges
    • cant see lateral swellings
  64. raised ridges that are continuation of pyramidal tracks
  65. medulla oblongate differentiation?
    not much
  66. the brain is
  67. medulla will contribute to reticular formation by
    provide visceral control
  68. visceral control controls things like
    heart rate, breathing etc
  69. 2 adult derivatives of metencephalon?
    pons and cerebellum
  70. relay station for info in a feedback loop from cerebrum going to cerebellum
  71. aka little brain
  72. deals with motor coordination
  73. deals with balance and proprioreception
    sensory inputs of cerebellum
  74. does not send any info to muscles but is necessary for muscle contraction
  75. cerebellum gets info that was sent out
    feedback loop
  76. gets info from cerebellum for muscle contraction
    cerebral cortex
  77. does not directly control muscle contraction
  78. sends output to higher units of brain and they use that info
  79. cerebellum structure?
    saggital viao
  80. gray matter? white matter?
    • cell bodies
    • neural fibers
  81. areas of neuron all bodies synapsing aka cerebellar nuclei
    inner gray layer
  82. abor vitae means
    tree of life
  83. has abor vitae and neuron fibers(axons)
    middle white layer
  84. cerebellum structure consists of?
    • inner gray layer
    • middle white layer
    • outer gray layer
  85. cerebellar cortex made of cells bodies
    outer gray layer
  86. tracks of white matter, bringing info in and out of cerebellum
  87. doesn't divide
  88. structures of mesencephalon?
    • corpora quadrigemmina
    • somatic motor
    • visceral motor
  89. quadrigemmina means
    4 swellings
  90. associated neurons for visual reflex, tracking and following (2)
    superior colliculi
  91. center for auditory reflexes, not concous processing of sound
    inferior colliculi (2)
  92. helps localize sound, act as relay station for sound into that is passed up to higher orders of the brain
    inferior colliculi
  93. moves eyeball in socket and also extrinsic eye muscles
    somatic motor
  94. how many extrinsic eye muscles?
  95. smooth eye muscle and not control over it
    visceral motor
  96. change size of pupil, motor change
    iris diaphragm
  97. smooth muscle has focus and changes lense
    iris diaphragm
  98. relay station for all sensory info intended for cerebral cortex
  99. sensation we can consciously feel is from
  100. sensation of smell does not synapse in
  101. directly regulate visceral function, body temp, fluid balance, hunger, thirst, digestive process, sex drive, growth and metabolic rate
  102. the hypothalamus is in control of
    pituitary gland
  103. controls autonomic control
  104. stalk connecting pituitary and hyothalamus
  105. covers sight of voluntary muscles, though and what we are aware of
  106. parts of telencephalon
    • cerebrum
    • basal ganglia
    • septum
  107. deep in telencephalon and initiates sterotypid movements
    basal ganglia
  108. basal ganglia is a ___ ___ and it doesn't change or vary from event to event
    fixed component
  109. complex part, involved with emotions, sexual behavior and regular behaviors
  110. reticular formation of mesencephalon, metencephalon and myelencephalon?
    • alertness and awakefulness
    • skeletal muscles relax
    • heart rate goes down
  111. damage to reticular formation means?
    zero alertness, leading to a coma