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. What would you like to do?
The percentage of interpersonal violence increases exponentially -
- humans had propensity to kill each other
- much more violence with larger groups involved with farming
______ and _____ allowed people to
live in great numbers and in close proximity with one another, which in turn
allows for ___________.
sedentism & agriculture
the spread of disease
early human sediment environments aren't as pleasant. What can manifest as a result?
larger communities increase contractability of disease with animals and humans
Most human pathogens have emerged as a result of close living quarters.
Also with close proximity to livestock as well as the waste from those animals.
modern sanitation is a recent phenomenon
diseases can be traced back to our adoption of ____ and close proximity with animals
in addition to all the progress brought on by agriculture Life was not easy for the first farmers. Why?
Caries increase by 7%
Malnutrition from less varied diet.
Sedentism, sanitation, population growth, and proximity enabled spread of diseases
Virtually all of our most devastating diseases originated in other animals….
- TB, measles, anthrax
- lyme disease
As a result of farming humans have drastically altered the environment. We have permanently altered the landscape around us.
After farming and domestication humans become agents of widespread global ecological change
spread of ____ is associated with ______
______ has demonstrated that the advent of ______ also entailed similar language loss
globally, especially in Europe, Eurasia, and SE Asia.
- Peter Bellwood
language loss can be associated with ____ & ____ also
ideas and technology
subsistence pattern based on the herding of animals.
- Foraging and agriculture may still be
- practiced, but pastoralists are people whose herds are the basis for their subsistence and whose worldview is built around this pattern.
mobile pastoralists rely on _____, but some are sedentary even though herds are moved around
transhumance (seasonal movement)
Nomadic pastoralists present a conundrum to archaeologists because they leave _____
- - pastorilist things dont preserve archaeologically
- - rely on a lot of natural things bc of easy movement with herd such as basketry
- - nomadic people become static in death
pattern in which herds are moved seasonally to different areas as pasture become available.
pastoralists relationship with sedentary cultures:
Huns (370-453 AD)
even though we are aware of their presence it is difficult to find archaeological traces that could be attributed to what roman sources refer to as the huns
pastoralists relationship with sedentary cultures:
Tamerlane (1336-1405 AD)
- played a role in the crusades
- tamerlane goes on conquest; sacked cities
- massive conquest in seljuak empire
- we have tamerlanes tomb, but no material evidence of his conquest
pastoralists relationship with sedentary cultures:
- genghis khan largest empire ever
- archaeologically its like it didn't happen
The Scythians (800-200 BC)
- refers to non greek nomadic person who rides a horse and wears trousers
- we know of them bc of herodotus entire book 4 dedicated to scythians
- Oblia is a greek trading colony; greeks needed grain, but scythians controlled it. They had tremendous influence on greek activities
- scythian tombs depicted greek mythological tombs; were rich in context littered with gold and silver, but was looted
- Peter the great of Russia declared this illegal, but if the tombs do get opened all the goods must be given to him
- most tombs were found not where herodotus was, but rather in pazaryk
- 3 kinds of scythians: farmer, scythians, and royal scythians (ruling elite)
Sergei Rudenko (1885-1969)
- found tombs and well preserved materials in permafrost
- his find was the 1st that was labeled pazaryk culture.
- It was also labeled scythian because it resembled some things herodotus talked about
Nomadic pastoralists had successful subsistence strategy that developed in ______ bc up until early ______. after this human manipulation of the environment has immediate consequences
- where siberian ice maiden was found by Natalia polosmak
- oldest instances of tattoos; great preserved wood
- partially excarnated(removal of flesh) bodies with inner organs moved for preservation
midevil burials in regards to excarnation
- if a body is in a state of decay its not good
- therefore excarnation by putrefaction takes place. more so with bodies of family and political figures where more care is given. An example is European aristocracy that indicates bringing the body back to the persons property to bury with dignity.
- 2 processes - excarnation and embalming
- example: richard lionheart had 3 burials
- The ability to control resources in accordance with one’s own interests and/or benefit.
- - power saturates human relationships
- - person in power has a lot of agency- not in power means limited agency
- - exploit power in different ways
- - we dont have equal power
- - social organization and social hierarchies
3 types of power
landscape arch in regards to power
humans use space, but its saturated with power and how we conceptualize space through material manifestation.
heterarchy vs. Hierarchy
heterarchy: human relationships. unranked organizations (non heirarchial)
heirarchy: someone in charge
- different types of relations hae diff qualitative types of power at diff times
how should we really understand power?
- as being exercised through networks.
- assymetry in power relationships
how does power manifest archeaologically?
- resources - food, material, labor, environment
- health - diffeent diets, less engaged in hard labor, more access to resources
- mortuary - rituals, burials
ex. augustus writes the regesta (things hes accomplished
1. economic power definition
2. evidence of economic control
1. Control over basic resources in order to create or maintain social inequality
- 2. Irrigation systems
- Centralized production of tools
- control over important raw materials
- control over surplus foodstuffs
the more people are removed the more dependent people get over others which can lead to social inequality
military or coercive power definition
The use or threat of violence to create inequality and maintain control
(differential access or centralized control. ex. trump (money) and augustus (military))
humans have history of physical intimidation and physical violence that manifests archaeologically through public executions, tools and technlogy or inflicting pain and suffering. Walls dont mean violence, but it means someone is concerned
Evidence of Military Power
- Fortified cities: walls andmoats.
- Sacrificial victims
- Police force & military (usually statecontrolled)
idealogical power definition
Ideas and values that are strategically used to create inequality and maintain control.
Evidence of Ideological Power
- Temples and monumental architecture
- Iconography - showing the self as king with headdress, branding name on everything (trump)
- Mortuary Ceremonialism
power in EGYPT examples
1.)Military/war - resulted in the unification of the empire = narmer 1st leader to emerge by unifying upper and lower egypt. Narmer palette shows shows manipulation of ideas such as crown and defeating enemies emphasizing military power. Economic power reflects by access to skilled individuals
2.)Economic - irrigation systems - economic control = pyramids are idealogical - shows they have power over resources (the nile)
3.) Idealogical - so much investment in iconography and symbolic idealogies - manipulating ideas to express power and influence people
power in MESOPOTAMIA
Environmental limitation and irrigation systems provided a source of economic control.
Warfare appears to have only played a minor role in state development.
Ideological control through temples though there appears to have been an absence of divine rulers.
- - known as land between 2 rivers (tigres and euphrates) really dry desert.
- - 1st meso city states emerge as agricultural centers
- - 1st clay sheets shows receipt writing as a way to keep track of economics
- - establishment of religius centers after the diff city state come into connection.
Divination using inscribed shoulder blades
- held 1st instances of chinas writing
Leadership emphasizes both in ceremony and iconography their right to rule by depicting military conquests,human sacrifice, and shamanistic power.
chinese city stats grow out of longshan tradition, out of that we get the sandai. collapse of sandai dynasty is a military collapse
3 chinese dynasties
- Xia - no arch evidence
- shang - erlitou capital. emergence of leadership building big city centers with big walls
- Zhou - continues as a dynasty after 800 BC. Zhou rulers came up with mandate of heaven as a way to declare their rule
founder/father of imperial china
- 221 BC
- Qin Shiung B
- china built 1st great wall of china
- built big tombs with terracotta army
- emphasized autocratic ruler
leadership emerges through combination of ritualized warfare and control over ideology through public spectacle involving sacrifice
farming starts to take hold. low lands and high lands (difficulty in clearing relied on swidden agriculture (light it on fire)
tendency to be extremely belligerent - a lot of conflict - warfare is ritualistic
olmec tradition manifests in mesoamerica lowlands. built massive ritual centers with stepped pyramids
- from mesoamerica
- mayan cities are ritual monuments
- shows and ceremonies orchestrated with Maya calendar
- played by military
- Loser gets put to death
- games played and ritual sacrifice done after
- leaders putting on ritual warfare displays
- courts used from Mayans to aztecs.
- focuses on place and space
- can be traced to Gordon Willey
gordon willey (1913-2002)
- layed ground work for landscape archaeology in US, but did most fieldwork in Mesoamerica.
- interested in relationship and influence of settlement heirarchy
- wanted to look at spatial distribution to look for systemic relationship between large and small settlements
- teotihuacan - massive population size. willey introduced 2 models: where people will get their food and the impact of environment.
- wanted to trace ecological human relationship with environment.
- Biocultural component with focus on human and landscape interaction.
- cultural model - focus on landscape of meaning as a symbolic representation of human behavior.
Phenomenology definition and founder
sensory experiences to view and interpret an archaeological site or cultural landscape.
the effect something has on you as you experience it
- christopher Tilley
- worked in sweden
- interested in neolithic landscapes of scandinavia and change in landscape overtime
- interpreted stonehenge
Stone Monuments in the Northern European
Landscape...what did they represent?
1. Carreg Samson (ca. 3000 BC)
2. Newgrange (3200-3100 BC)
A mixture of environment and human manipulation to create meaning
- 1.) Carreg Samson:
- was a burial mound
- monolith held up by 3 stones with 7 other stones surrounding it
- Stones added to make it look impressive
- used as a corral for sheep 100 years ago
- made a heritage site in 20th century
- 2.)Newgrange -
- shaft neolithic grave
- built into a massive mound
- contained carbonized and nonhuman remains
- stones drawn from coastal rocks
- In winter solstice sun can shine into the center - was not easy to accomplish
- later editions were put in by people overtime
- today it stands for a more touristy attraction, but overtime different people had different experiences with it
Cerveteri and Tarquinia
- Etruscan (modern day tuscany) Necropolises
- built landscapes for the living and the dead
- bear witness continuation of life in the after life
- Tarquinia- tombs carved into the rock, hidden under burial mounds
- Cerveteri - a real Necropolis -city for the dead - The tomb of relief has paintings/molded sculptures of a full nonfunctional house
- something reused or altered but still bearing visible traces of its earlier form
- different layers and concepts of life viewed in landscapes
- each generation contributes things to monuments and landscapes
- ex: downtown tacoma is a palimpsest of the growth of the town
etruscans fasces & buildings
- bundle of 12 sticks around an axe
- symbol of authority, power, and unified etruscans
- Fasces on seal of US congress
- when romans built their temples it was set up on etruscan model not greek
- celebrated in finer things in life and represent it in artwork
- religious centers composed of 3 adjacent rooms with columns in front - similar to roman building
- penates - little figures maintained in shrine in the house to sustain their souls
- for the romans souls didnt stay on earth it went to the underworld - diff then the etruscans
- the only thing that sustained the dead were people alive talking about them
- fama - concept of rememberance
- true representation of individuals
- romans tend to write who they are and what theyve done and put portraits of themselves in attempts to continue fama
difference between etruscans and romans burial monuments
- etruscans - have actual houses for the dead
- romans - have cenotaph where people would see it alongside roads and cities
structure or statue that is built to remind people of a dead person who is buried somewhere else
roman landscape of cemetary
- christian cemetaries located usually near a church
- bound off from living
- close proximity to home
- communal - everyone gets put there
- christian burials came out from the ground placed upon landscape
- has cenotaph
Humans inscribe their world with
meaning and often this involves the use of names and language. What are places called? What imagery do they recall? What feelings do they inspire?
- a full repertoire with symbolic behavior
- proxemics - natural environment space
- archaeological language leaves palimpsest through material things
- langauge has symbolic representation that has visual attributes that invoke images
- ex. when we visit cemetaries we have distinct feeleings with these spaces and its more than just naming things
- -a poem about a nobleman
- - composed in 800 - 1100 ad
- - originates in england
- - talks about heroic deeds and mythical accomplishments of beowulf
- - in beowulf mounds inhabited by dragons and dead
- - beowulf travels to danish court; kills grendal and his mother
- - dies after he goes to gotenberg to battle a dragon
- - even though beowulf found in england the language reveals the place and origin of the story and it resonates throughout other regions
- - sutton hoo - ship burial in mound with no body - validates descriptions in poem
- idea of burial places being inhabited by supernatural
What do these names and narratives
suggest about how Anglo-Saxons thought of the places created by burial mounds?
Who or what are in these?
Are these places one should avoid?
- places names for burial mounds mythological in nature
- idea that the supernatural is present
- place where world of living mixes with supernatural
- Anglo-saxons know whats in there
- but when it becomes covered it beomes a magical place in the landscape
- an interaction with the landscape and landscape of the dead
- series of anglo saxon burial mounds
- excavated throughout 20th century
- ship burial placed into a mound - not the only ship burial
- not best for preservation
- decayed things leave laminates, body was gone, but shape still there
- planks, nails, and artifacts there, but initially no body, then later discovered a body was there
- mimics story of beowulf
- story reveals flow of people and ideas
- anglo saxons didnt come to scandinavia dissimination that stories told in one place are told in others and become a part of their tradition
Afurore Nordmannorum libera nos Domine
(Oh Lord! Deliver us from the fury of the Northmen)
- 793 beginning of viking period
- a prayer of despair in medieval churchs and monastic institution, starting after the first Viking raid upon Britain
- vikings raided lindesfarne - wealth was concentrated in churches and monestaries as norsemen were denied trade
viking period bracketed by 2 events
- battle of hastings - King Harold II of England is defeated by William the Conqueror (norman)
- lindisfarne - event that echoed amongst english clergy by viking raidings
- battle of stamford bridge ended the viking threat to england
snorri sturluson & Ibn-fadlan
- we know about vikings because of him
- he wrote down things after the fact that made chornology and things overlap
- more accurate account comes from Ibn-fadlanwho came into contact with norse. famous account with encountering group of norsemen whose chief just dies and watches the viking funeral. cheif dies and people got appointed
- influential in modern film.
how does arch evidence of vikings show up in different ways
- large farm sheds in scandinavia
- hoards of treasures & objects acquired abroad
- english chronicle - written by clergy so we get a negative view of vikings
- Russian chronicle - completely different view; extremely aggressive, skilled. dont think of vikings as raiders but seafaring traders with penchant for violence. (has to do with norse cosmology and worldviews - the only way to get to heaven was thru battle.
- vikings left behind rhunstones
- vikings left behind rhunstones, futhark, commemorating someone dead
- it was not standardized language
- mostly in sweden (18 in scandinavia that describe events
- vikings were prolific in their travels
- legacy of these movements writen in places that norse went
- -by = along british coast;legacy of how things were founded
- Kirk = old norse church
- -thorpe(Scunthorpe) = secondary settlement
The Kievan State (850-1050 AD)
- russian primary chronicle describes kievan kingdom, one we dont hear much about
- a place that demonstrates convergence of all types of traditions
peoples worldview of burials/mounds in the bronze and iron age compared to today?
- the dead were apart of the living world
- had powers of posession;mythological
- our worldview the soul, spirit, or essence of the person departs at death and travels somewhere else.
- son of odin
- god of light and purity in norse mythology
- plays role with end of time
- signifies coming of the end
- christ figure that emerges in norse mythology
War in Heaven
- norse mythology of the war between olympians and titans
- vaenirs - race of gods, first in conflict with the Aesir - principal race of gods, led by Odin
- rig veda - sacred text
- different groups of people have different worldviews, but these worldviews have lingustic significance in that it gets passed on and becomes used in other traditions
- The study of knowledge itself…i.e. how do we know what we know?
- all information we know is rooted in epistemology
- how we think and where information comes from creates different knowledge of things that are plausible
- it influences our narratives and worldviews
- everyone has different worldviews
- we need to get accurate information, so fact check
the eagle of the ninth
Who? What? Where? What do we know about the Ninth?
Boudica (61 AD), Eboracum/York
(108 AD), Nijmegen (121-130 AD)
- we must be careful with hollywood epistemology - movies influenced by book
- rosemary sutcliff wrote about the eagle of the ninth
- she got the idea from theodore mommsen who started making speculations about the eagle of the ninth from john horsley who first began to induce information about the 9ths disappearance
- people speculate about things, but it was not uncommon for romans to decommission legions
- 9th legion of spain suffered an enormous defeat by boudicca that took out legionnaires
- legion rebuilt york - we know this because of stamped inscribed bricks
- 165 ad marcus arreleus census dont include the 9th
- there is nothing in record that says anything about the destruction of the 9th
- officers of 9th were in nijmegen, but we dont know if the rest were there.
2.) Constitutio Antoniniana
- caracalla was a berber roman emperor, berbers from north africa, his father was septimius Severes
- idea of nation and citzenship, death and taxes started by caracalla
- Constitutio Antoniniana was a law enacted to build an empire
- After caracallas law everyone in borders were now roman and taxable (given new identities)
- from this idea citizenship grows
- it questions how roman was the roman empire
- was a berber
- marched 1 elephant into italy but it died too - the rest died in transit
- other accounts plead otherwise
- romans didnt have to face hannibals elephants
- (where we get our information influences narratives)
- city in rome
- well preserved city and sculptures
- septimius severes came from leptis magna
- little tourist traffic compared to other areas with demolished ruins or replicas
How “Roman” was the Roman Empire?
- caracallas constitutio antoniniana law made everyone in the borders roman and taxable
- trajan and hadrian came from spain. most roman emperors after julian claudian were not italian or original latin speakers
- a lot of roman emporers spoke greek
- epistemology can quickly change ideas and perceptions we have about people and events because of the information we have at hand
flags/emblems/epistemology - borrowed ideas
mussolini and fascism
- the fasces was from the etruscans
- but it is seen on the italian fascism flag/banner
- mussolini was italian politician of fascist party
- used as a positive symbol before hitler and nazi regime
- hitler used this symbol while murdering thousands of people
- through this the symbols meaning has changed
- people get offended at its sight now
- carlsberg brewery in copenhagen used the swastika symbol before it had a negative impact - now it has impacted their tours by having to explain the meaning behind it to people who get edgy around it
landscape and meaning
in the spaces that we are inhabiting they are full of other narratives
epistemology and worldviews /violence and war
- archs must keep in mind phenomenology and that landscapes hold a palimpsest of meaning
- must be cognizant that epistimology is influential
- things move from peaceful to violent
- people dont spend entire time inflicting violence
“Otzi” the Iceman
- found in the alps
- very well preserved by the ice
- evidence of violence - ambushed and suffered from arrow wounds
- evidence of type of clothing worn
There are some interesting observations about war in the last 200 years. Wars are becoming increasingly frequent, but they are also becoming less lethal.
the bloodiest campaigns over the last millennium all the highest death tolls occurred before 1950. Since then there have been more wars than in the first half of the 20th century, but the casualties have been far fewer, both for combatants and civilians.
- changes have less to do with human nature and more to do with how war is conducted.
- a lot of laws in place regarding war conduction
- Yet the reasons for going toward tend to remain the same….i.e struggle for resources, territory,and security.
How can we study violence and war in the past?
violence isnt visible without texts. someone must write about accounts. texts tend to have massive biases. Thucyclides - historian who wrote about Peloponnesian war
- iconography: sculptures, art, dipictions on wall
- ex: bayeux tapestry - battle of hastings harold got shot in the eye. trajans column - after dacian war we get an idea of look, tools, etc.
multifunctional; not just about violence; some form of threat is concerned, but it could also regulate people and trade
need to look for deliberate killings of mass amount of people. we dont know how combat was conducted. ex: tutoburg forest.
can signal diff things even with osteological evidence it can be difficult to over come some barriers
preoccupation with weapons to inflict violence. always building and improving
secondary evidence to studying violence and war?
- roman city
- well preserved site with activity around fortifications
- came under attack by sassanian empire
- archaeologist Simon James found tunnels dug by romans (dug tunnel to kill) and persians (dug to collapse)
- tower 19: romans dug, met the persians and lost
- tower 14: 20 romans, 1 persian soldier; tunnel collapsed when bitumen and sulphur were introduced and lit.
- site of english zulu wars in 1879
- Sir Henry Bartle Frere instigated zulu wars
- sent lord Chelmsford to lead expedition into zulu land without thinking about consequences
- zulus defeated british with shields and spears
- Sir Henry was chastised
- british led harsh campaigns against zulus
- british intentionally put up monuments where british died in commemeoration.
- 1990's monument for zulus were erected
commemoration with space and social memory explanation
- with monuments we invoke social memory
- we are selective with social memory
- ideaology of war involves selective commemoration and selective forgetting
- ex: tokyo fire bombs killed 130,000 people in 1 night, but it is less discussed over atomic bombings
- refers to shared commemorative narratives
- that shape a group’s perceptions of the world, their identity, and the past
The act of creating memory using ideas, objects, space, and place.
arch of titus & roman forum
- erected by domitian
- roman army marched thru bringing spoils of war
- located in roman forum where the state and every leader has deliberatly put there mark there commemorating themselves and their wars
- when we collectively agree to the meaning we attribute to things.
- has potential to stay longer and change bc culture is shared
- only reason it works is because humans have innate capacity for symbolic expression and symbolic behavior
- deliberate construct of commomoration of people, battles, societies
- act of commemoration on large scale felt on individual and collective level
- are actions, behaviors, and regulations
- that are meant to reward appropriate behavior and punish deviant acts.
- personal: confronting, shunning
- communal: nazi flag exile
- informal: no birthday invites
- formal: gov't punishment and laws
profanity, sexuality sanctions
- sanctions govern language and sexuality -collectively we decide what is considered taboos
- government can decide what is taboo - ban books in library
survival of the fittest
herbert spencer, but darwin often assocaited with it
- states sometimes censor stuff
- ex: lattimore came under scrutiny by mccarthy and labeled a communist. he made some best accounts about asia.
- mein kampf - hitlers accounts book banned with formal sanctions in germany, informal in US
hans ulrich rudel
- red baron
- most successful aviator in Hx of air combat
- stucca pilot
- shot down 6 times
- took down 2 russian friggets
- did not fight for nazi's, but did not put them down either
- fought for germany
- he wrote stuka pilot and we werent that interested but as soon as he fights against russians we are interested
JU junker 87?
Where can you find the only two intact
(out of 6500 made) JU Junker 87 Stukas
- stuka dive bomber plane
- takes out tanks
- very effective in combat, but bc it fought for wrongside we leave it out
- found in chicago and royal airforce museums - in the hands of its victors
internet and epistomology
- we search for things we want to know about
- our ability to interpret information is affected by accuracy, relevance, cultural representation
Culture is Contested in epistomology
- only way to accpet an idea is if we communally accept it
- there will always be competing narratives bc culture is shared and contested
- unless we agree it will go out of existance
ethical debate on representation: how do we represent our subjects when they have there own narratives?
- the challenge is to seek to understand these narratives
- competing narratives are important bc once they enter the public sphere they become dominant narratives
primary bias practiced by men with issues and concerns that were geared to men. women and children under represented
- students stumbled upon him in washington in96
- james chatters did initial biological forensic report
- possible of 1st migrations to north america
- legal dispute broke out
- the first major use of NAGPRA (native american grave protection act enacted in 1990 due to archs and anthros collecting native american bodies and artifacts in museums - dispute on ownership)
- the problem in this case for nagpra was a connection needed to be established
- Army corp of engineers closed site access so no one could get in and do more researching
- 8 archs fought it, sued the gov't and won
- douglas oakley got permission to study kennewick man for 10 days
- determined 40 y/o male, non local features, osteological injuries, isotopic analysis proved diet of marine animals, drinking glacial mounts from alaska
- most closely related to Ainu group in japan
- unclear as why he was down here
who are we ethically responsible to: dead or alive
- we have to be aware of nationalists agendas
- ex: greece markets the past for economic reasons.
- the dilemma is the original monuments removal and who gets to decide. ex: nike removal
- nation states have vast amount of resources - they precide over what is taught in education, goes in museums etc.
- a lot of debates come back to representation
- ethical perspectives for archaeologists are problematic because there subjects are dead
- ethnographers subjects are alive and they can dispute it
- archaeologists needs to try and intercept deviating narratives early on to see where people are getting their info
- diff narratives emerge from diff worldviews
Consequences of Empire Archaeology, Antiquarianism, and Ethics:
- argument that lord elgin took statues from the ottomons in greece
- greek heritage concerned that he took more than he should
- although record shows that it was a legally established sale
- we must be aware of nationalists agendas
how long does something need to be in order to be considered archaeological?
battle of little big horn
- known for custers last stand
- custer designed a positive persona around himself that his death was made an issue over the underlying meaning of the feud
- custers army outnumbered
- major native american victory
- NA's refused to be confined to reservations
- Americans were outraged and viewed the indians as hostile, blood feud savages
- US returned in 4 years and erected a statue commemorating US soldiers, but left nothing for native americans
- in 1970 NA's erected their commemoration monument
- problematic bc up until 1970's weve celebrated custer in education, songs, stories etc and gave hostile worldview of NA's
difference between prehistoric warfare and modern nationstate warfare
- prehistoric warfare didnt need a reason and oftern wasnt rational
- modern warfare is based around ethics, societal views and reactions, and rationalism
- Split apart from the shoshone tribeon the upper platte river
- most struggling and poorert of NA's
- hunted and gathered food
- they acquired horses in 1680 - life changes
- mastered riding and fighting with horses
- Social and Political Organization:
- Patrilineal & patrilocal
- each camp precided over by 2 males:
- chief: older male, no authoriitrian power, agrees by consensus.
- war chief: young man; power only lasting as long as people would listen; power cycles in/out
- each major tribe was preceded over a Paraibo (elder without prestige)
What would you like to do?
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