violence isnt visible without texts. someone must write about accounts. texts tend to have massive biases. Thucyclides - historian who wrote about Peloponnesian war
- iconography: sculptures, art, dipictions on wall
- ex: bayeux tapestry - battle of hastings harold got shot in the eye. trajans column - after dacian war we get an idea of look, tools, etc.
multifunctional; not just about violence; some form of threat is concerned, but it could also regulate people and trade
need to look for deliberate killings of mass amount of people. we dont know how combat was conducted. ex: tutoburg forest.
can signal diff things even with osteological evidence it can be difficult to over come some barriers
preoccupation with weapons to inflict violence. always building and improving