ch 14 psychological disorders

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ch 14 psychological disorders
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  1. a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. 

    medical model, 
    psychological disorder, 
    anxiety disorders
    Psychological disorder
  2. the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital 

    DSM-5,
    anxiety disorders, p. 513 
    medical model, p. 507
    medical model, p. 507
  3. the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders. 

    anxiety disorders, p. 513 
    DSM-5, p. 509 
    medical model, p. 507
    DSM-5, p. 509
  4. psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent  ________or maladaptive behaviors that reduce ________.
    Panic disorder, p. 513 
    mood disorders, p. 519 
    anxiety disorders, p. 513
    anxiety disorders, p. 513
  5. a / an ________ disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. 

    anxiety disorders, p. 513 
    generalized anxiety disorder, p. 513 
    panic disorder, p. 513 
    mood disorders, p. 519
    generalized anxiety disorder, p. 513
  6. an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations. Often followed by worry over a possible next attack. 

    panic disorder, p. 513 
    anxiety disorders, p. 573 
    schizophrenia, p. 528 
    mania, p. 520
    Panic disorder, p. 513
  7. an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation. 

    psychosis, p. 528 
    delusions, p. 528 
    phobia, p. 513 
    mood disorders, p. 519
    phobia, p. 513
  8. a disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts, actions, or both. 

    posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), p. 515 
    obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), p.514 
    mood disorders, p. 519 
    major depressive disorder, p. 520
    obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),
  9. a disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience. 

    dissociative disorders, p. 534 
    dissociative identity disorder (DID), p. S34 
    posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), p. 515 
    major depressive disorder, p. 520
    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD),
  10. • Unfocused tension, apprehension, and arousal is called ____ ______disorder. If a person is focusing anxiety on specific feared objects or situations, that person may have __________.  Those who express anxiety through unwanted repetitive thoughts or actions may have a(n) _______-__________disorder. Those with symptoms of recurring memories and nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia for weeks after a traumatic event may be diagnosed with __________  ___________disorder. Those  who experience unpredictable periods of terror and intense dread, accompanied by frightening physical sensations, may be diagnosed with a(n) _______disorder.
    ANSWERS: geneneralized anxiety; phobia; obsessive-compulsive; posttraumatic stress; panic
  11. psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. 

    panic disorder, p. 513 
    mood disorders, p. 519 
    bipolar disorder, p. 520 
    schizophrenia, p, 528
    mood disorders, p. 519
  12. a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms, at least one of which must be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure. 

    mood disorders, p. 519 
    bipolar disorder, p. 520 
    major depressive disorder, p. 520 
    schizophrenia, p. 528
    major depressive disorder, p. 520
  13. a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. 

    mood disorders, p. 519 
    mania, p. 520 
    bipolar disorder, p. 520 
    psychosis, p. 528
    bipolar disorder, p. 520
  14. a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state in which dangerously poor judgment is common. 

    phobia, p. 513 
    psychosis, p. 528 
    delusions, p. 528 
    mania, p. 520
    mania, p. 520
  15. a psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished, inappropriate emotional expression. 

    schizophrenia, p. 528 
    psychosis, p. 528 
    delusions, p. 528 
    dissociative disorders, p, 534
    schizophrenia, p. 528
  16. a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions. 

    phobia, p. 513
    psychosis, p. 528 
    delusions, p. 528 
    schizophrenia, p. 528
    psychosis, p. 528
  17. false beliefs, often of persecution think or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders. 

    phobia, p- 513
    dissociative disorders, p. 534 
    delusions, p. S28 
    personality disorders, p. 537
    delusions, p. 528
  18. • A person with schizophrenia who has _______(positive/negative) symptoms may have an expressionless face and toneless voice. These symptoms are most common with ______(chronic/acute) schizophrenia and are not likely to respond to drug therapy. Those with _______ (positive/negative)^symptoms are likely to experience delusions and to be diagnosed with _______(chronic/acute) schizophrenia, which is much more likely to respond to drug therapy.
    ANSWERS: negative; chronic; positive; acute
  19. disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. 

    dissociative disorders, p. 534 
    Personality disorders, p. 537 
    antisocial personality disorder, p. 538
    dissociative disorders, p. 534
  20. a rare _____disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. 

    dissociative identity disorder (DID), p. 534 
    antisocial personality disorder, p. 538 
    personality disorders, p. 537 
    generalized anxiety disorder, p. 513
    dissociative identity disorder (DID), p. 534
  21. an eating disorder in which a person maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 percent or more) underweight. 

    bulimia nervosa, p. 536 
    anorexia nervosa, p. 536 
    binge-eating disorder, p. 536
    anorexia nervosa, p. 536
  22. an eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting. 

    anorexia nervosa, p. 536 
    bulimia nervosa, p. 536 
    binge-eating disorder, p. 536
    bulimia nervosa, p, 536
  23. significant _______episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa. 

    binge-eating disorder, p. 536 
    bulimia nervosa, p. 536 
    anorexia nervosa, p. 536
    binge-eating disorder, p. 536
  24. psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. 

    personality disorders, p. 537 
    antisocial personality disorder, p. 538 
    dissociative disorders, p. 534
    personality disorders, p. 537
  25. a disorder in which a person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist. 

    personality disorders, p. 537 
    antisocial personality disorder p. 538
    Psychosis, p. 528 
    schizophrenia, p. 528
    antisocial personality disorder, p. 538
  26. 2. Although some psychological disorders are culture-bound, others are universal. For example, in every known culture some people have 

    a, bulimia nervosa. 
    b. anorexia nervosa. 
    C. schizophrenia. 
    d. susto.
    2. c
  27. 3. A therapist says that psychological disorders are sicknesses and people with these disorders should be treated as patients in a hospital. This therapist believes in the ____________model. 

    delusions, p. 528 
    medical model, p. 507 
    psychosis, p. 528
    3. medical
  28. 4. Many psychologists reject the "disorders -as-illness" view and instead contend that other factors may also be involved—for example, the person's bad habits and poor social skills. This view represents the ______approach. 

    a. medical 
    b. evil spirits 
    c. biopsychosocial 
    d. diagnostic labels
    4. c
  29. 5. Most psychologists and psychiatrists use __________to classify psychological disorders. 

    a. the DSM-5 
    b. Freudian theory 
    c. input from patients' family and friends 
    d. the theories of Pinel and Rosenhan
    5. a
  30. 7. Anxiety that takes the form of an irrational and maladaptive fear of a specific object, activity, or situation is called a ____________.

    psychosis, p. 52 
    delusions, p. 528 
    mood disorders, p. 519 
    phobia, p. 513
    7. phobia
  31. 8- An episode of intense dread, accompanied by trembling, dizziness, chest pains, or choking sensations and by feelings of terror, is called 

    a- a specific phobia. 
    b. compulsion. 
    c. a panic attack. 
    d. an obsessive fear.
    8. c
  32. 9. Marina became consumed with the need to clean the entire house and refused to participate in any other activities. Her suited a therapist, who diagnosed her as having ___________-________disorder. 

    obsessive-compulsive 
    posttraumatic stress 
    major depressive 
    obsessive-compulsive
    9. obsessive-compulsive
  33. 10. The learning perspective proposes that phobias are 

    a- the result of individual genetic makeup. 
    b. a way of repressing unacceptable impulses. 
    c- conditioned fears. 
    d. a symptom of having been abused as a child.
    10. c
  34. 11. Two disorders are found worldwide. One is schizophrenia, and the other is _________.

    phobia, p. 513 
    mood disorders, p. 519 
    delusions, p. 528 
    depression , p. 528
    11. depression
  35. 12. Although bipolar disorder is as maladaptive as depression, it is much less common and it affects 

    a. more women than men. 
    b. more men than women. 
    c. women and men equally. 
    d. primarily scientists and doctors.
    12. c
  36. '3. The rate of depression is ______increasing/ decreasing) among young people.
    13. increasing
  37. 14. Depression can often be alleviated by drugs that increase supplies of the neurotransmitters ____________and_________.
    14. norepinephrine; serotonin
  38. 15.  Psychologists who emphasize the importance of negative perceptions, beliefs, and thoughts in depression are working within the ________-________perspective.
    15. social-cognitive
  39. 16. A person with positive symptoms of schizophrenia is most likely to experience 

    a. catatonia. 
    b. delusions. 
    C. withdrawal. 
    d. flat emotion.
    16. b
  40. 17. People with schizophrenia may hear voices urging self- destruction, an example of a(n) ___________.
    17. hallucination
  41. 19. Chances for recovery from schizophrenia are best when 

    a. onset is sudden, in response to stress. 
    b- deterioration occurs gradually, during childhood. 
    c. no environmental causes can be identified. 
    d. there is a detectable brain abnormality.
    19. a
  42. 20. Dissociative identity disorder is controversial because 

    a. dissociation is actually quite rare. 
    b. it was reported frequently in the 1920s but rarely today. 
    c. it is almost never reported outside North America. 
    d. its symptoms are nearly identical to those of obsessive- compulsive disorder.
    20. c
  43. 21. Which of the following statements is true of bulimia nervosa? 

    a* People with bulimia continue to want to lose weight even when they are underweight. 
    b* Bulimia is marked by weight fluctuations within or above normal ranges. 
    c. Bulimia patients often come from middle-class families that are competitive, high achieving, and protective. 
    d- If one twin is diagnosed with bulimia, the chances of the other twin's sharing the disorder are greater if they are fraternal rather than identical twins.
    21. b
  44. 22. A personality disorder, such as antisocial personality, is characterized by 

    a- depression. 
    b. hallucinations. 
    c. enduring and inflexible behavior patterns that impair social functioning. 
    d. an elevated level of autonomic nervous system arousal.
    22. c
  45. 23. PET scans of murderers' brains have revealed 

    a. higher-than-normal activation in the frontal lobes. 
    b. lower-than-normal activation in the frontal lobes. 
    c. more frontal lobe tissue than normal. 
    d. no differences in brain structures or activity.
    23. b
  46. 24. One predictor of psychiatric disorders that crosses ethnic and gender lines is _____________.
    24. poverty
  47. 25. The symptoms of ________appear around age 10; ______tends to appear later, around age 25. 

    a. schizophrenia; bipolar disorder 
    b. bipolar disorder; schizophrenia 
    c. major depression; phobias 
    d. phobias; major depression
    25. d

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