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Prejudice with mark the basketball player (2)
-people thought he was black if he was more ahtletic
-people thought he was white if they were more cerebral player
Confederates applying for jobs: home vs hetereo results
Employers were less verbally positive spent less time interviewing confederates who portrayed themselves as homosexuals
How do we reduce intergroup prejudice?) contact hypothesis
Contact between majority and minority group members will decrease prejudice
How do we reduce intergroup prejudice?) what can result from contact hypothesis?
Inaccurate stereotypes will be disproven
How do we reduce intergroup prejudice?) what did allport say about contact hypothesis?
- -only when contact occurs between people of equal status in pursuit of common goals
- *good idea but has been hard to prove
How do we reduce intergroup prejudice?) Contact in robbers cave: what did contact between both groups do?
It created opportunities for aggression amongst one anohter
How do we reduce intergroup prejudice?) contact at robbers cave: summary of what happened when creating emergencies that forced groups together (2)
-at first after the tasks that forced them to work together, after the task was completed they would go back to fighting.
-eventually the hostility started to decline and became friendship
What was the initial results from desegregating schools?
Contact between children from different racial groups was not reducing prejudice
Revised contact hypothesis
- Contact reduces prejudice under certain conditions
- *mere contact is not enough to undermine prejudice
What are the 6 conditions necessary for contact to reduce prejudice?
-personal, informal contact
-existing norms must favor group equality
-contact with multiple group members to breakdown stereotypes
Why was the jigsaw technique successful? (4)
-expert role promotes "equal status"
- -common goal
- *need others to do well on test
- -mutual interdependence
- * need each student to complete the work
-increases informal personal contact with multiple group members nada where norms support contact.
stereotype change) when a person does not behave consistently with a stereotype...
It can lead to stereotype change
What is the result of subtyping?
- It can protect the original stereotype and create a subgroup to explain an abnormal behavior
- *ghetto blacks, preppy blacks, country blacks
- *beaners, Mexican americans
subtyping: Channing stereotypes AND counter stereotypic people
We are less likely to change stereotypes in response to counter-stereotypic people (person that does not fit the stereotype) when we can subtype them easily
2 ways that can lead to stereotype change if...
- -individual is otherwise typical of the group
- *black dude hood as hell but also polite
-deviation from the stereotype is moderate
Subtyping more likely if... (3)
- -they discomfirm stereotypes on multiple dimensions
- *girl is assertive and good at math
- -we have other information with which to dismiss the person as atypical
- *she was raised with brothers
- -the deviation from the stereotype is extreme
- *she is extremely aggressive
4 reasons why prejudice is difficult to change
-affectively based attitudes
-schema consistent processing
Reasons why prejudice is hard to change) affectively based attitude
Logic does not work with people that have strong beliefs
Reasons why prejudice is hard to change) subtyping
There are exceptions to eveyrhting so they simply label the person as a subgroup
Reducing prejudice) Allports contact theory (6)
-informal interpersonal contact
3 reasons why jigsaw works?
-breaks down in group and out group categorization
-favor doing situation
-encourages the development of empathy
If you want to improve relations between people in different groups then do the following 4 things
-establish positive and frequent contact situations
-try to cultivate friendships across group lines
- -approach interactions with an open-mind
- *don't assume people in other groups won't like you
-create shared goals that require cooperation among people from different groups
Diagram that centers "compare behavior to stereotype": if the behavior matches then it leads to...
Diagram that centers "compare behavior to stereotype": if the behavior mismatches...
Then search for explanation
Diagram that centers "compare behavior to stereotype": If there is a mismatch and we turn to the situation then...
stereotype is unchanged
Diagram that centers "compare behavior to stereotype": if we search for explanation for mismatch and turn to person 2 things can occur?
- -atypical member
- -typical member
- *stereotype change