Ch. 12 Reducing Your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

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Ch. 12 Reducing Your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer
2014-11-20 17:51:11
Health Basics
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  1. Chronic Diseases
    illnesses that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely
  2. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
    the broad term used to include diseases of the heart and blood vessels such as high blood pressure, coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, stroke, and congenital cardiovascular defects
  3. Cardiovascular System
    • 1 out of every 3 adults suffer from CVD
    • is the network of organs and vessels through which blood flows as it carries oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body
  4. Atria
    • two upper chambers
    • are large collecting chambers that receive blood from the rest of the body
  5. Ventricles
    • two lower chambers
    • pumps the blood out again
  6. Heart Function
    Pg. 366 Fig. 12.2
  7. Arteries
    carry blood away from the heart; all arteries carry oxygenated blood, except for pulmonary arteries, which carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs, where the blood picks up oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide
  8. Arterioles 
    as the arteries branch off from the heart, they branch into smaller blood vessels called arterioles, and then into even smaller blood vessels known as capillaries→their thin walls permit the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste products with body cells
  9. Veins
    • vessels that carry blood back to the heart from other regions of the body
    • branches off veins
  10. Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)
    • located in the right atrium
    • cluster of electric pulse generating cells that serves as a natural pacemaker for the heart
  11. Arteriosclerosis
    • thickening and hardening of arteries
    • is believed to be the biggest contributor to disease burden globally
  12. Atherosclerosis
    • is a type of arteriosclerosis and is characterized by deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin (a clotting material in the blood) in the inner lining of an artery
    • Plaque is the resulting buildup of deposits in the arteries
    • is the most common form of coronary artery disease (CAD) and occurs as plaque restricts blood flow and oxygen to the body's main coronary arteries on the outer surface of the heart
  13. Ischemia
    when circulation is impaired and blood flow to the heart is limited, the heart may become starved for oxygen
  14. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
    when atherosclerosis occurs in the upper or lower extremities, such as in the arms, feet, calves, or legs, and causes narrowing or complete blockage of arteries
  15. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
    • is the greatest killer
    • a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood to the heart
  16. Myocardial Infarction (MI) = Heart Attack
    involves an area of the heart that suffers permanent damage because its normal blood supply has been blocked
  17. Angina Pectoris
    chest pain