Chapter 13 Test

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Henri93
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Chapter 13 Test
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2014-11-20 21:56:29
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Chapter 13 Test
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  1. What were the sources of Dutch prosperity and why did the Netherlands decline in the eighteenth century? Why did England and France develop different systems of government policies?
    Because of high urban consolidation, transformed agriculture, extensive trade and finance, and an overseas commercial empire, the Dutch prospered in the seventeenth century; however, by the eighteenth century, the Netherlands began to decline in prosperity because of a lack of political unity, lost naval supremacy, the decline in the fishing and shipbuilding industry, and the decline of national trading. England and France developed different types of monarchies because of the different political personalities and the historical developments of their nations. Because of the struggles with Parliament and Protestant influences, England became a parliamentary monarchy. Because of Louis XIV and France’s unity, France became an absolute monarchy.
  2. Why did the English king and Parliament quarrel in the 1640s? What were the most important issues behind the war between them? What was the Glorious Revolution, and why did it take place? What role did religion play in seventeenth century English politics?
    The English Parliament and the King quarreled in 1640 because Charles I, the king, wanted to raise an army to suppress the Scottish rebellion but Parliament didn’t believe Charles I could be trusted with an army. The most important issues behind the war were the king’s paternalistic rule, financial measures, and religious policies. The Glorious Revolution was when William III of Orange and his wife Mary, after English pleas, became the new monarchs of England, forcing James II, the king of England, to seek safety in France. William III became king to please the English’s  and Parliament’s discrepancies with James II. The Glorious Revolution shows that religion plays an important role in seventeenth century English politics because James II was a devout Catholic, which caused the Protestant army to resist him and urge William into power.
  3. Why did France become an absolute monarchy? How did Louis XIV consolidate his monarchy? What limits were there on his authority? What was Louis’s religious policy? What were the goals of his foreign policy?
    The groundwork for France to become an absolute monarchy was laid by two French cardinals, Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin, both of whom had strong centralizing policies. Louis XIV continued the policies of the cardinals while pleasing the French nobility, which made France an absolute monarchy. Louis XIV consolidated his monarchy by making the monarchy the most important and powerful political institution in France while also assuring the nobility and other wealthy groups of their social standing and influence on the local level, bringing all groups together. Louis XIV believed that political unity and stability required religious, Catholic,  conformity. Louis XIV’s foreign policy was to secure France’s weak borders while frustrating the Habsburg ambitions that endangered France.
  4. How were the Hohenzollerns able to forge their diverse landholdings into the state of Prussia? Who were the major personalities involved in this process and what were their individual contributions? Why was the military so important in Prussia? What major problems did the Habsburgs face and how did they seek to resolve them? Which family, the Hohenzollerns or the Habsburgs, was more successful and why?
    Frederick William of the Hohenzollerns was able to forge the diverse landholdings into the state of Prussia through taxation and the development of a strong army. Also, Frederick I was able to form Prussia by building palaces, founding universities, and patronizing the arts. The military in Prussia was important because it built the Prussian’s power and unity, not for pursuing foreign adventures. The Habsburgs faced problems of unity because their land was culturally diverse and lacked any “common ground.” The Habsburgs resolved their unity problems by promoting religious toleration and uniting to fight the common enemy, the Turks. The Hohenzollerns were more successful than the Habsburgs because they were able to establish an efficient bureaucracy, united their peoples, and create a powerful army with a relatively small population.
  5. How and why did Russia emerge as a great power but Poland did not? How were Peter the Great’s domestic reforms related to his military ambitions? What were his methods of reform? How did family conflict influence his later policies? Was Peter a successful ruler?
    The Russians were able to emerge as a great power, unlike Poland, because the Russian kings, most notably Peter the Great, were able to keep the wealthy nobility in check, securing their absolute power; however, the Polish rulers were not able to elect a strong king because of the nobility’s deep distrusts and divisions. Peter the Great’s domestic policies regulated the nobility of Russian but never excluded any group, such as the boyars. Similarly, Peter the Great looked at other military successes in Europe and used them to strengthen his military. Later Peter realized that he could not eliminate his opponents the way he had attacked the streltsy; thus, Peter began to bring the nobility and the Russian Orthodox Church closer to himself, “keeping his enemies closer”. Peter the Great was a successful leader because he laid the foundations of a modern Russian, establishing a strong military and determining Russia’s western orientation.
  6. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Ottoman Empire? How did the Ottomans deal with religious minorities? Why did the Empire discourage interaction between its subjects and people from Europe? How did its failure to adapt to modern technology undermine its power?
    The Ottoman Empire was strong because it practiced religious toleration and an efficient bureaucracy; the Empire was weak because it overextended itself and its bureaucracy created competition with the imperial authority. the Empire discouraged interaction between its subjects and people from Europe to ensure the Ottomans don't learn how to limit the abilities of their leaders and resist the established authority and revolt against the Empire. The Ottomans failure to adapt to modern technology, such as ships that could traverse dangerous waters, left them behind in trading, infrastructure, and ultimately in influence.
  7. The nobility constituted about ____ of the population.
    1-5 percent
  8. Louis XIV's view of the monarchy was influenced by his experience of the revolt known as the: ____.
    Fronde
  9. Louis XIV's absolutism functioned in all of the following areas EXCEPT: ____.
    definition of Catholic dogma
  10. The Hohenzollerns turned ____ into a powerful state.
    Prussia
  11. The Ottoman sultans governed their empire through unites callled: ____.
    millets
  12. Jansenists believed that: ____.
    original sin could not be redeemed without special grace from God
  13. Louis XIV considered the revocation of the Edict of Nantes: ____.
    his most pious act
  14. In the 17th century, the most urbanized country in Europe was: ____.
    The Netherlands
  15. All of the following contributed to the decline of the Netherlands except: ____.
    violence brought about by religioes intolerance
  16. _____ was a republic governed without a monarch in the 17th cenury?
    The Netherlands
  17. James I's unpopularity was a result of all of the following except: ____.
    his desire to conquer Ireland
  18. Which of the following was a provision of the Petition of Right?
    Taxation could only occur with parliamentary consent.
  19. Between 1649-1660, England was officially a/an: ____.
    puritan republic
  20. Which of the following was NOT true of Britain in the early 18th century?
    There was a large standing army.
  21. Louis XIV's success in expanding royal authority was dependent on his ability to gain the support of the: ____.
    nobility.
  22. Bishop Bossuet was an ardent supporter of: ____.
    the divine right of kings
  23. In the late 1660s, France was superior to any other European nation except in: ____.
    naval power
  24. The basic challenge facing the Habsburg Empire was: ____.
    the profound diversity of the territories contained within the empire.
  25. Many of Peter the Great's most important policies aimed at: ____.
    limiting the power of the traditional Russian nobility
  26. The dominant political power in the Muslim world in the 16th and 17th centuries was the: ____.
    Ottomon Empire

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