Spec Topics Phys

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Spec Topics Phys
2014-11-21 12:18:47
Spec Topics Phys
Spec Topics Phys
Spec Topics Phys
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  1. Which of the following neurotransmitters is commonly accepted as responsible for reinforcing a rewarding activity?
  2. What structure in the brain assigns emotions to incoming information?
  3. It is possible to increase a persons level of happiness with an SSRI.
  4. Increased levels of happiness amplify genes that
    Increase antiviral response
  5. A person’s level of happiness has a physiologic effect on genes.
  6. Which one is the least important concern about using alternative pain mediation?
    duration of the treatment?
  7. Which of these is a reason to try alternative pain therapy?
    all of the above
  8. What do acupuncture, hypnosis, massage, and tai chi have in common?
    they can be used as treatment for chronic pain
  9. What is important to know about pain treatment?
    there are many different options
  10. Which of the following is not a suggested technique for alternative pain management?
  11. Illicit Drugs that use dopamine work on which of the following pathways
    All of the above
  12. Illicit drugs use which neurotrasmitters to elicit their effects..
    A & C are the correct answers
  13. Illicit Drugs cause harmful and permanent psychological and physiological effects in the body.
  14. Stimulants, including cocaine, amphetamines & Nicotine, work via inhibition of the neurotransmitters serotonin, noepinephrine & dopamine.
    False. They increase the amount of NTs (Not inhibit)
  15. The Brain’s pathways for natural rewards are the same that are utilized for the artificial highs of illicit drugs.
  16. What enzymes are responsible for the breakdown of cartilage?
    Metalloproteinases (MMPs)
  17. What is the #1 risk factor for OA?
  18. What is typically seen in the early stages of OA?
    Thickening of articular cartilage
  19. Is low bone density or high bone density associated with OA?
  20. The specific cause of OA is unknown, however it is believed to be a combination of both mechanical and biologic events.
  21. Which personality trait has beneficial health outcomes?
  22. Which type of behaviors increases risk for traumatic injury?
    Risk seeking
  23. What increased risks do people with narcissistic personalities see?
    All of the Above
  24. What type of personalities run the risk of having longer healing times?
  25. Which one is a likely example of an injury for someone with exercise addiction?
  26. Which of the following is not an example of a corrective exercise?
  27. What is the optimal muscle length to create the most amount of force?
    A length between shortened and fully lengthened
  28. Which of the following terms means a science that deals with designing and arranging things so that people can use them easily and safely?
  29. What is the proper progression of corrective exercise?
    Myofascial release/massage, stretching, strengthening
  30. What diagnosis in adolescents can be treated with corrective exercises?
  31. Which of these is NOT a potential benefit of Caffeine consumption?
    Treatment for insomnia.
  32. Which of these is not a usual side effect of caffeine?
  33. How much daily caffeine is recommended for pregnant women, and why?
    Pregnant women should have less than 200mg of caffeine because it increases risk of miscarriage.
  34. How much is a lethal dose of caffeine?
  35. Caffeine is a stimulant.
  36. What is the definition of mental imagery?
    seeing pictures in the mind that resemble a perceptual experience which occurs in the absence of an external stimuli
  37. Which of the following is NOT an example of how to use imagery?
    set unrealistic expectations
  38. When engaging in Palming, picturing a calming color is thought to do all the following except:
    increase your blood pressure
  39. Mirror visual feedback, when used with patients having an amputated limb, is thought to do what?
    create a reflection of other limb to help relieve pain of the phantom limb
  40. The use of mental/healing imagery before and after surgery is shown to:
    all of the above
  41. Which of the following is a result of extrinsic aging?
    all of the above
  42. What accelerates aging by forming ROS (reactive oxygen species)?
    UVA rays
  43. All of the following are extrinsic factors that can negatively damage skin. Which one contributes up to 80% and is the most important factor for aging?
    UV radiation
  44. Which of the following does NOT slow premature aging?
    Vitamin D
  45. How do antioxidants fight premature aging?
    Prevent exogenous free radical formation
  46. A duct in liver that connect umbilical venous blood to inferior vena cava blood is?
    Ductous venosus
  47. Which vessel carry the least oxygenated blood and take blood from the fetus to the placenta?
    Umbilical artery
  48. What of the following changes occur after birth?
    All the above
  49. A preterm female infant born to a 32-yr old woman with no known past medical illness present for the infant’s 1-week follow-up. The mother reports that the patient is behaving normally and is feeding well. The physical exam is remarkable for a murmur, which is located at the 2nd left intercostal space. The murmur is continuous throughout cardiac systole and diastole, non-radiating, and of “machinery” quality. What is the most likely diagnosis?
    Patent ductus arteriosus
  50. Which structure does Ductus arteriosum converted to in adult?
    Ligamentum arteriosum
  51. Social media commonly allows which types of personalities to thrive online?
  52. Narcissistic personality types tend to be:
    Pervasive pattern of attention seeking behavior, shallow with exaggerated emotions
  53. Narcissists use social media to:
    All of the above
  54. Social media can increase your exposure to people with a variety of personality disorders.
  55. Which of the 3 cluster types fits into the narcissistic type of personality?
    Cluster B: Dramatic, emotional or erratic behavior
  56. What is a side effect of lithium, antipsychotics, and anticonvulsants that can be managed by exercise?
    weight gain
  57. How can exercise help a person’s mental well-being?
    All of the above
  58. What are the main neuromodulator(s) released by exercise?
    Epinephrine and serotonin
  59. How long does it take for a patient to significantly reduce depression by exercising regularly?
    3 weeks
  60. What is not true about endophorins:
    Not positively impacting the brain
  61. What activity is NOT defined as play?
    Does not make you forget about time
  62. Play is NOT important for child’s cognitive and physical development.
  63. For play to be an enjoyable experience, you should…
    Just do it!
  64. From a physiological point of view, playing in childhood is associated with…
    Better developed motor skills
  65. Benefits of play for adults include all of the following except…
    Attenuates your role in the relationships because people think you are foolish
  66. What agent(s) can cause bronchoconstriction?
    All of the above
  67. What is the most concerning symptom for an allergic reaction that could lead to anaphylaxis?
  68. A patient comes to the ER with a rash and SOB after eating shrimp. He has a known allergy and has had to be intubated before for an anaphylactic reaction. What is the first medication that needs to be administered to this patient?
  69. What releases preformed mediators from secretory granules?
    a&c only
  70. What can cause an allergic or anaphylactic reaction?
    All of the above
  71. Which of the following is NOT a cause of fatigue?
    Poor diet
  72. What is compassion fatigue?
    Emotional and physical burden of caring for sick patients, causing inability to empathize further
  73. Select the best answer for how to recognize fatigue:
    Take BP, HR, and RR at each visit, and compare that to their physical and mental symptoms obtained in ROS.
  74. How does mental fatigue affect physical activity performance?
    It raises a person’s perception of effort, thus lowering their ability to carry out the activity for a long duration or put in maximal effort.
  75. Physical fatigue affects retrieval of long-term memory
  76. Which is not a physiologic response to laughter?
    attenuated blood flow
  77. Laughing is typically always in response to something funny.
  78. Laughing is associated with stress reduction.
  79. Laughing may help to burn an extra few calories.
  80. What is laughter theorized to be an extension of?
    The social brain hypothesis
  81. Strict Aerobic exercise increases the cross-sectional diameter of muscle fibers.
  82. What impact on resting heart rate do BOTH aerobic and resistance training provide?
    Decrease in resting HR by 5-25 bpm
  83. Aerobic exercise promotes changes primarily in which type of muscle fibers?
    Slow Oxidative Fibers
  84. True or False? Changes that are made to muscle fibers through exercise do NOT revert with inactivity?
  85. Muscle hypertrophy seen in resistance training occurs primarily due to what?
    Increased diameter of muscle fiber cells
  86. Wound repair refers to:
    regeneration of cells with some scarring and fibrosis
  87. Acute and chronic wound repair follow the same sequential pathway?
  88. Which of the following is true of first and second intention wound healing?
    All of the above.
  89. What are the primary cells responsible for cleaning up debris and necrotic tissue at the site of injury?
  90. In the remodeling phase, which of the following occur?
    Collagen Fibers converted from type III to type I
  91. When beginning a weight loss program consistent of low-carb dieting, which of the following occur:
    Oxidation of fat stores
  92. How many calories are 1 gram of each macronutrient?
    Protein: 4 ; Carbohydrate: 4 ; Fat: 9
  93. Which of the following diets are based on the notion of eating only the food of “Cavemen”?
    Paleo Diet
  94. Weight loss is seen upon:
    Caloric Deficit
  95. Which of the following is considered a body type having difficulty gaining weight?
  96. Example of pathologic hyperbilirubinemia is/are
    All of the above
  97. Phototherapy changes water insoluble bilirubin to water soluble bilirubin by configurational isomerization
  98. Bilirubin is by product of Hemoglobin
  99. Physiologic jaundice start within first 24 hrs
  100. Which bilirubin crosses the BBB and can cause kernicterus?