Federal law enacted in January 2002 that introduced new accountability measures for elementary and secondary school in all states receiving federal education aid
National Assessment of Educational Process (NAEP)
The only regularly conducted independent survey of what a nationally representative sample of students in grades 4,8 and 12 know and can do in various subjects.
Trends and International Math/Science Study (TIMSS)
A regularly updated study launched by the US in 1995 that compares the performance in science and mathematics of students in 46 countries.
Kentucky Education Reform Act
1990 Law passes in response to court findings of unacceptable disparities among schools in Kentucky; considered the most comprehensive state school reform act to date
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Federal law passed in 1995 as part of Presidents Johnson's Great Society initiative; steered federal funds to improve local schools, particularly those attended primarily by low-income and minority students.
In education, fixed criteria for learning that students are expected to reach in specific subjects by specific grade years.
High-Stakes Standardized Testing
Testing of elementary and secondary students in which poor results can mean either that students fail to be promoted or that schools lose their accreditation.
Successful School model
An education model that uses observed spending levels in the highest performing schools as the basis from which to calculate spending in other, low performance schools.
Criterion Referenced Tests
A standardized test designed to gauge a students's level of mastery of a given set of materials.
Educate America Act Goal 2000
Signed into law in march 1994 which provided resources to states and communities to ensure that all students could reach their full potential.
Norm Referenced Tests
A standardized test designed to measure how a student's mastery of a set of materials compares with that of a specially designed sampling of students determined to be the national norm for that age groups.
An effort to create benchmarks of adequate learning in each subject for each grade level so that students and teacher can be evaluated on the mastery of this predetermined material
Site Based Management
A Movement to increase freedom for building administrators such as school principles to determine how districts fund are spent at individual schools.
State Boards of Education
Top policymaking body for education in each state, usually consisting of appointments selected by the governor.
Department of Education
A state level agency responsible for overdoing public education.
An elected or appointed body that determines major policies and budgets for a school district.