A&P 1 exam 4 (part 3)

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melissag94
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289797
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A&P 1 exam 4 (part 3)
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2014-11-21 14:44:43
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final anatomy physiology
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The Nervous System: Neural Pathways Fall 2014
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  1. spinal nerves are broken into how many pairs of segments?
    31 pairs
  2. inferior end of spinal cord (L1)
    conus medullaris
  3. spinal nerves below spinal column aka horses tail
    cauda equinoa
  4. shorter than vertebral column and ends at L1
    spinal cord
  5. where do nerves pass through?
    foramen
  6. holds neuron cell bodiesĀ in horns or columns
    gray matter
  7. 2 types of horns?
    • dorsal sensory horn
    • ventral motor horn
  8. holds neuron processes
    white matter
  9. organization of spinal cord?
    highly and physically organized, not randomly distributed
  10. tracts in CNS are equivalent to what in PNS?
    nerves
  11. communicated between adjacent spinal segments
    short tracts
  12. communicate between spinal segment and brain
    long tracts
  13. form a ring around gray matter
    short tracts
  14. rings of white tracts are aka
    fasciculus proprius
  15. 2 types of long tracts
    • ascending tracts
    • descending tracts
  16. conveys sensory info to brain (goes up spinal cord)
    ascending tracts
  17. carries motor info from brain to segment (down spinal cord)
    descending tracts
  18. what neurons are ascending tracts associated with?
    sensory and association neurons
  19. descending tracts are associated with what neurons?
    association (entirely in CNS)
  20. what happens when axon gets to segments?
    it enters ventral horn and synapses
  21. 3 tracts of ascending tracts?
    • dorsal column tract
    • spinalthalamic tract
    • spinocerebellar tract
  22. made up of primary, sensory neurons
    dorsal column tract
  23. 2 parts of dorsal column tract
    medial and lateral
  24. has sensory info intended for cerebral cortex
    dorsal column tract
  25. goes to cerebral cortex
    spinalthalamic tract
  26. sends info to cerebellum and uses propioreception
    spinocerebellar tract
  27. cerebellum is involved in ___ coordination
    motor
  28. organization according to body region/location
    somatopic
  29. organized by type of sensory info conveyed and can be within or between tracts
    sensory modality
  30. all sensory on left side will be projected on right side of brain and vice versa
    all fibers crossover
  31. in pathways in spinal tracts are
    multineuron
  32. right brain takes care of?
    left side of body and vice versa
  33. takes tracts from cerebral cortex
    descending tracts
  34. 2 types of descending tracts?
    • lateral corticospinal
    • anterior corticospinal
  35. lateral and anterior corticospinal are both
    motor outputs
  36. have 2 motor neurons in PNS
    visceral nerves
  37. visceral nerves in PNS differ from somatic bc?
    in somatic it is always just 1 motor neuron, where in PNS it is 2
  38. difficult to analyze
    visceral nerves
  39. visceral nerves pathways?
    sensory and motor
  40. order of ascending pathway
    • cerebral cortex
    • thalamus
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
    • spinal cord
  41. 1st synapse in ascending pathway?
    at medulla between sensory and association neuron
  42. structure where 1st synapsing occurs in ascending pathway
    dorsal column nucleus
  43. marks location where crossing over occurs
    medial lemniscus
  44. 2nd synapse in ascending pathway occurs?
    thalamus in diencephalon between association and association neuron
  45. have another nucleus btwn 2 association neurons
    ventrobasalthalamic nucleus
  46. order of spinothalamic tract?
    • sensory neuron
    • spinal cord
    • medulla oblongata
    • pons
    • midbrain
    • thalamus
    • cerebral cortex
  47. in the spinalthalamic tract what happens immediately upon synapsing ?
    association neuron crosses over
  48. where does crossing over occur in spinalthalamic tract
    spinal cord
  49. where synapsing occurs and can sort info
    relay nuclei
  50. always occurs but where it occurs varies
    crossing over
  51. somatopic, all info starts out together and stays together throughout body regions
    organization of tracts
  52. outer most layer
    cortex
  53. outer most layer of cerebellum
    cerebral cortex
  54. cerebral cortex is made up of
    gray matter of cerebrum
  55. the cerebral cortex has how many layers of cells?
    6 layers of cells
  56. 2/3 of neurons operate here
    cerebral cortex
  57. each layer in cerebral cortex has a ? how many cells are in the 6 layers?
    • different function
    • 3 billion cells
  58. folds of cerebral cortex
    gyri
  59. shallow grooves of cerebral cortex
    sulci (separate gyri)
  60. why is there a constraint on size of head?
    bc the head has to fit through birth canal
  61. fold in cerebral cortex give?
    more surface area without increasing size of head
  62. deep grooves
    fissures
  63. seperates right and left hemispheres
    longitudinal fissure
  64. men rely on ? women rely on?
    • 1 hemisphere and not the other
    • both hemispheres
  65. risk that men only rely on one hemisphere?
    if they have a stroke, men are more affected especially if it is in the side they use
  66. strokes affect?
    men more than women
  67. deep groove that seperates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
    transverse fissure
  68. 4 cerebral hemispheres?
    • parietal lobe
    • frontal lobe
    • occipital lobe
    • temporal lobe
  69. responsible for logic, consciousness and higher mental functions
    frontal lobe
  70. responsible for vision
    occipital lobe
  71. responsible for sounds
    temporal lobe
  72. 5th functional lobe found underneath parietal lobe aka uncus
    insula
  73. cant be seen from the surface and receives smell
    insula
  74. made of white matter
    corpus callosum
  75. how left and right hemispheres communicate
    through corpus callosum
  76. where all voluntary motor output originates
    cerebrum
  77. comes from frontal love from precentral gyrus
    motor output
  78. seperates frontal lobe from parietal lobe
    central sulcus
  79. all voluntary motor output originates here
    precentral gyrus
  80. motor output arise from 5th layer of cells in precentral gyrus known as
    pyramidal cells
  81. pyramidal cells and axons get together to form
    pyramidal tract
  82. pathway that leaves the cerebral cortex
    pyramidal tract
  83. pyramidal tract originates in? and distributes via?
    • telencephalon
    • spinal cord
  84. descending pathway order?
    • cerebrum
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla
    • spinal cord
    • muscle
  85. pyramidal tract as it passes through diencephalon
    internal capsule
  86. descending pathway is what type of pathway
    motor
  87. pyramidal tract passing through mesencephalon
    cerebral peduncle
  88. where does crossing over occur in descending pathway?
    medulla
  89. in ventral horn of spinal cord you find?
    cell bodies
  90. when you synapse with muscle in descending pathway what happens?
    action potential is transferred from motor neuron to muscle fibers
  91. descending pathway is a
    somatic pathway
  92. difference btwn ascending and descending pathway?
    • ascending- 3 neurons
    • descendingĀ - 2 neurons because it does not synapse in thalamus
  93. example of complex system found in the CNS
    limbic system
  94. parts that contribute to limbic system?
    • forebrain
    • olfactory bulb
    • part of thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • verticular formation
  95. involved in regulating emotions and visceral functions
    limbic system

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