A&P 1 exam 4 (part 4)

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A&P 1 exam 4 (part 4)
2014-12-08 21:43:42
anatomy final fall 2014

Special Senses: Hearing and Balance Fall 2014
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  1. major areas of the ear?
    • outer ear
    • middle ear
    • inner ear
  2. acts as a funnel
    outer eat
  3. elastic cartilage covered by skin
  4. pinna aka
  5. where is auricle?
    outer ear
  6. short tube that has S shape and gives protective function
    external auditory meatus
  7. stiff membranous disc that captures mechanical energy out of air
    tympanic membrane
  8. parts of outer ear?
    • pinna
    • external auditory meatus
    • tympanic membrane
  9. cavity that sits inside temporal bone
    middle ear
  10. the cavity of middle ear is?
    filled with air and line by a mucus membrane
  11. mucus membrane helps?
    keep area moist and dark
  12. terminates in oral cavity
    Eustachian tube aka auditory tube
  13. has spinchter muscle that sits around cavity and the sphincter is usually closed
    auditory tube
  14. highly compressible
  15. who did middle ear infection affect the most?
    infants, very painful
  16. ossicles of middle ear?
    • malleus
    • incus
    • stapes
  17. articulates with incus and tympanic membrane
  18. what happens when sphincter muscle opens?
    it equalizes the pressure on both sides
  19. what happens as tympanic membrane vibrates?
    its transferred to ossicles
  20. order of flow in middle ear
    • tympanic membrane
    • malleus
    • incus
    • stapes
    • oval window
  21. what is next to inner ear
    oval window
  22. vibrations act as a
    mechanical amplifier
  23. can be from 20-50x
  24. low volume sounds can be ____ as you go across space of middle ear
  25. muscles that go on ossicles?
    • tensor tympani
    • stapedius
  26. found on malleus and when it contracts it reduces vibration
    tensor tympani
  27. inserts on stapes and dampens vibration in the stapes
  28. muscles in ossicles help to
    dampen very loud vibrations, it can either amplify or adjust volume
  29. most complex part of ear
    inner ear
  30. complex structure inside temporal bone that is a combo of cavities and channels
    bony labyrinth
  31. house structures for processing hearing and balance
    spaces in temporal bone
  32. spaces in temporal bone to house structures of inner ear
    bony labyrinth
  33. part of bony labyrinth?
    • semicircular canals
    • vestibule
    • cochlea
  34. x, y and z plane and all at right angles to one another
    semicircular canals
  35. loops up? loops back? extends out to side?
    • superior semicircular canal
    • posterior semicircular canal
    • lateral semicircular canal
  36. cavity where oval window is found
  37. sits between vestibule and cochlea
    oval window
  38. snail shaped structure where round window is found
  39. structures inside bony labyrinth made of sacs and tubes
    membranous labyrinth
  40. fluids are
  41. fluid that fills membranous labyrinth
  42. fluid that fills bony labyrinth
  43. semicircular ducts are found
    in membranous labyrinth
  44. semicircular canals are found
    in bony labyrinth
  45. superior semicircular duct is found?
    in superior canal and filled with endolymph ad same for other 2
  46. expansions at end of ducts that have hair cells
  47. cells with hairlike projection on free surface
    hair cells
  48. movement of endolymph in ducts is detected by
    air cells (receptors)
  49. maintenance of body position in response to angular movement (acceleration and deceleration)
    dynamic equilibrium
  50. air cells convert movement of fluid into
    action potential
  51. carries info about dynamic equilibrium
    vestibulocochlear nerve
  52. have hair cells and rocks of calcium carbon
    utricle and saccule
  53. rock like crystals that are always pointing down
  54. gravity is always pulling these down
  55. orients body position with respect to gravity
    static equilibrium
  56. helps to determine which way is up or down when eyes are closed
    static equilibrium
  57. found inside cochlea
    cochlear duct
  58. curls around so it can be longer but occupy a small space and is found in middle of cochlea
    cochlear duct
  59. cochlear duct is filled with
  60. sits on basilar membrane
    spiral organ of corti
  61. when fluid vibrate it cause ___ ___ to vibrate. then spiral organ of corti ?
    • basilar membrane
    • translates vibrations into action potentials
  62. fluid that is incompressible
  63. when endolymph is pressed on it pushes back on
  64. what does perilymph press on?
    round window
  65. when the perilymph presses on the round window, what does the round window do?
    buldges and fills up space of inner ear
  66. is the air of the inner ear compressible?
  67. what is used to determine the frequencies of sound
    length of cochlear duct
  68. high frequencies of sound are processed?
    in closer areas
  69. low frequencies of sound are processed
    in distal areas
  70. do high and low frequencies come from the same place?
  71. what do the ossicles do?
    allow to adjust volume of vibrations by amplifying
  72. this localizes/collects sound
  73. canal of the ear
    external auditory meatus
  74. vibrates from sound waves and collects mechanical energy
    tympanic membrane
  75. convert vibrations in ear to action potential
    spiral organ of corti
  76. what makes the action potentials
    hair cells
  77. processes info for subconscious part
    inferior colliculi
  78. sensory info for cerebral cortex, where most synapsing occurs
  79. where you hear the noise
    temporal lobe
  80. final product of simplified pathway?
    action potentials sorted via the pathway
  81. mechanical energy vibrations that broadcast waves
    simplified pathway of ear