3.1

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Author:
efrain12
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289802
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3.1
Updated:
2014-11-22 16:42:51
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Life Nutrition
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Adult Nutrition
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  1. What age range is early adulthood?
    20-39 yr range
  2. What age range is midlife?
    40-64 yrs
  3. What is considered as the sandwich generation?
    The 50s
  4. Why is the sandwich generation known as multigenerational caregivers?
    They juggle roles of caring for children and aging parents but also have to maintain a career
  5. What is the age range for later adulthood?
    65+
  6. The span years between 20-64 is a time when the future course of health & wellness are influenced by...(4)
    -diet

    -physical activity

    -smoking

    -body weight
  7. Nutrition and exercise are among the main lifestyle factors that reduce the risk of 5 of the 10 leading causes of death...
    -cancer

    -heart disease

    -stroke

    -diabetes

    -liver disease
  8. Health disparities among groups of adults) population groups have higher prevalence of obesity  than other races
    blacks
  9. Health disparities among groups of adults) some groups have a genetic disposition for certain diseases : example of this
    Asians develop CVD at lower BMI and waist circumference
  10. Physiological changes of adulthood) when does growing stop?
    By 20s
  11. Physiological changes of adulthood) when does bone density continues till?
    30
  12. Physiological changes of adulthood) when does bone loss begin around?
    40
  13. Physiological changes of adulthood) when does muscular strength peak around?
    25 to 30 years of age
  14. Physiological changes of adulthood) what else besides size and mass of muscle decrease after peak?
    Dexterity and flexibility
  15. Physiological changes of adulthood) hormonal changes: what leads to menopause?
    Decline in estrogen
  16. Physiological changes of adulthood) what do hormonal changes in women lead to (4)
    -decline of estrogen which brings menopause

    -increase in abdominal fat

    -increase in risk of CVD

    -accelerated loss of bone mass
  17. Physiological changes of adulthood) hormonal changes in men
    Gradual decline in testosterone level which leads to decline in muscle mass
  18. Physiological changes of adulthood) body composition changes in adults: (2)
    -decrease in muscle mass

    -fat redistribution
  19. Physiological changes of adulthood) body composition changes in adults: fat redistribution (2)
    -Gains in the central & intra-abdominal space

    - decrease in subcutaneous fat
  20. Physiological changes of adulthood) what does the fat redistribution is associated with risk of chronic disease? (6)
    -hypertension

    -insulin resistance

    -diabetes

    -stroke

    -gallbladder disease

    -coronary artery disease
  21. Maintaining a healthy body) age-related changes: what happens to caloric expenditure ? and why?
    Declines 2% per decade during early adulthood due to decrease of resting metabolic rate and activity level
  22. Maintaining a healthy body) what happens to physical working capacity?
    Declines 5-10% per decade in older adults
  23. Determining energy needs in adults) 3 categories to formulate energy needs
    -basil metabolic rate

    -Theremin effect of food

    -physical activity energy expenditure
  24. Determining energy needs in adults) basil metabolic rate: what is this based on?
    • Involuntary processes
    • *what it takes to maintain body weight from doing anything at all
  25. Determining energy needs in adults) basil metabolic rate: how is this often measured as? (2)
    -resting energy expenditure

    -resting metabolic rate
  26. Determining energy needs in adults) Thermic effect of food
    Metabolism of food
  27. Determining energy needs in adults) physical activity energy expenditure : what are 2 categories within this one?
    -exercise thermogenesis

    -non-exercise activity thermogenesis
  28. Determining energy needs in adults) which of the 3 categories varies the most?
    Physical activity energy expenditure
  29. 5 factors that impacts energy needs
    -gender/bodysize/muscle mass

    -activity levels

    -health status

    -hormones

    -individual variation
  30. Ball park caloric levels) weight maintenance
    15 calories per pound
  31. Ball park caloric levels) weight loss
    13 calories per pound
  32. Ball park caloric levels) weight gain
    17 calories per pound
  33. Determining energy needs in adults) estimate with equations: Mifflin- St. Jeer energy estimation formula
    More accurate than old Harris-benedict equation for overweight and obese people
  34. LOok at the formula in slide 20 just in case we need to learn male and female formulary
  35. What is a calorie?
    Amount of energy needed to raise the temp of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celsius
  36. Determining energy needs in adults) Direct calorimetry: where does measurement take place in
    Measurement of heat production in chamber
  37. Determining energy needs in adults) Direct calorimetry: how does it work?
    -heat generated by body transferred to air and walls
  38. Determining energy needs in adults) Direct calorimetry: how is it measured by?
    Measured by recording the temperature change in the air and water
  39. Determining energy needs in adults) Direct calorimetry: what are strengths ?
    accurate
  40. Determining energy needs in adults) Direct calorimetry: what are limitations? (2)
    -expensive to build and maintain

    -confined to chamber
  41. Determining energy needs in adults) indirect calorimetry: how does it calculate?
    Calculates heat produced based on gas exchange
  42. Determining energy needs in adults) indirect calorimetry: what does it determine?
    Resting energy expenditure while is nearly = to BMR
  43. Determining energy needs in adults) indirect calorimetry: strengths? (2)
    -relatively inexpensive

    -easy to measure
  44. Determining energy needs in adults) indirect calorimetry: limitations  (2)
    -based on assumption of steady state

    -confined to metabolic cart
  45. Determining energy needs in adults) doubly labeled water: what are limitations?
    expensive
  46. Determining energy needs in adults) which is the gold standard for measuring free living total energy expenditure method?
    Doubly labeled water
  47. Determining energy needs in adults) doubly labeled water: how does the process work? (2)
    -subjects are given a dose of tagged water

    -excretion of isotopes in saliva and urine is used to calculate average energy utilization over several days
  48. Determining energy needs in adults) doubly labeled water: why is the water referred to as tagged?
    Water is tagged with an uncommon isotope
  49. Composition of weight lost chart: calories restriction percentage of fat and fat free mass loss?
    75%: calorie restriction

    25% fat free mass
  50. Composition of weight lost chart: percent of fat and fat free mass lost when calorie restricting and exercise? (2)
    -88%: fat mass

    -12% fat free mass
  51. 3500 kcal rule) what's one example of dynamic changes and not static?
    The lower the body weight the lower the REE and energy requirements
  52. Protein consumption AND TEF (Thermic effect of food)
    The more protein one consumes the higher TEF will be
  53. Dynamic mathematical models of human energy regulation and weight change have been developed.. it takes in account 3 things
    -composition of weight lost

    -initial weight/adiposity

    • -metabolic adaptations
    • *changes in energy needs
  54. What is NIddk?
    Body weight simulator
  55. Dietary recommendation) dietary guidance systems...(4)
    -sets of dietary and lifestyle recommendations

    -based on lasted scientific information

    -developed to promote health and prevent disease

    Key components of the US system are the dietary guidelines for Americans and my plate
  56. Dietary recommendation) dietary guidance systems focus on? (6)
    -limiting saturated fat intake

    -limiting trans fats

    -keeping sodium low

    -regular physical activity

    -energy intake= energy expenditure

    -consume greater amounts of fruits, veggies, fiber, and low fat dairy products
  57. Acceptable micronutrients distribution ranges: what is the acceptable range for fats?
    20-35%
  58. Acceptable micronutrients distribution ranges: what is the acceptable range for carbs?
    45-65%
  59. Acceptable micronutrients distribution ranges: acceptable range for protein?
    10-35%
  60. AI for water) men
    3.7 liters
  61. AI for water) women
    2.7 liters
  62. How is water intake measured in? (2)`
    -beverages

    -foods
  63. Is there an upper level intake for water ?
    No but toxicity can occur
  64. hyponatremia
    • cause cells to swell which leads to intracranial pressure
    • *results in headaches, confusion, coma
  65. beverage intake recommendation) 3 things to consider
    -consume fewer beverages containing fats and added sugar

    -beverage intake must be considered as total calorie intake

    -choose beverages that fit into dairy, veggies, fruit groups
  66. Alcohol) percent that drink alcohol
    61%
  67. Is there evidence to linking caffeine containing fluids with dehydration?
    No evidence
  68. DRI committee and caffeine containing beverage?
    They concluded that the beverages contribute to the total daily water intake
  69. What do dietary supplements help out with? (2)
    -pregnancy

    -low calorie or nutrient restricted diets
  70. What are functional foods?
    food products that have a physiological benefit or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions
  71. Physical activity helps to... (4)
    -meet physical activity demands of work and leisure comfortably

    -manage weight and reduce disease risk factors

    -support physical and mental health

    -enhance quality of life
  72. Physical activity recommendations) at least how many minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical actiivty
    150 mins/week
  73. Physical activity recommendations) at least how many minutes per week of vigorous intensity physical activity
    75 minutes per week
  74. For additional benefits) how many minutes per week for moderate intensity and vigorous intensity?
    -300 mins of moderate intensity

    -150 mins vigorous intensity
  75. For additional benefits) how many times a week muscle strengthening ?
    2 times a week
  76. Regular physical activity leads to... (3)
    -increase in cardiorespiratory fitness

    -increases in muscle strength

    -changes in body composition
  77. regular physical activity leads to... Changes in body composition (2)
    -reduced fat mass

    -increased lean mass
  78. Caloric restriction and aerobic physical activity
    Even without caloric restriction, aerobic physical activity results in decrease of adiposity
  79. Nutrition intervention for risk reduction) types of interventions (3)
    -individual counseling

    -multi-component programs

    -policy and system changes
  80. Nutrition intervention for risk reduction) individual counseling
    Increase knowledge and encourage behavior change
  81. Nutrition intervention for risk reduction) multi-component programs
    • Social and environment supports
    • *purchase info about calorie/fat content, heather food options in vending machines
  82. Nutrition intervention for risk reduction) policy and system
    Affect quality, availability, and affordability of food
  83. Living in poverty is linked to..(2)
    -poor diets

    -increased rates of obesity and adverse health outcomes
  84. What is food insecurity?
    Difficulty providing enough food for all family members at some time during the year due to lack of resources
  85. Public food and nutrition programs) (4)
    -SNAP

    -gov't extension programs

    -meals on wheels

    -soup kitchens and shelters for homeless

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