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What age range is early adulthood?
20-39 yr range
What age range is midlife?
What is considered as the sandwich generation?
Why is the sandwich generation known as multigenerational caregivers?
They juggle roles of caring for children and aging parents but also have to maintain a career
What is the age range for later adulthood?
The span years between 20-64 is a time when the future course of health & wellness are influenced by...(4)
Nutrition and exercise are among the main lifestyle factors that reduce the risk of 5 of the 10 leading causes of death...
Health disparities among groups of adults) population groups have higher prevalence of obesity than other races
Health disparities among groups of adults) some groups have a genetic disposition for certain diseases : example of this
Asians develop CVD at lower BMI and waist circumference
Physiological changes of adulthood) when does growing stop?
Physiological changes of adulthood) when does bone density continues till?
Physiological changes of adulthood) when does bone loss begin around?
Physiological changes of adulthood) when does muscular strength peak around?
25 to 30 years of age
Physiological changes of adulthood) what else besides size and mass of muscle decrease after peak?
Dexterity and flexibility
Physiological changes of adulthood) hormonal changes: what leads to menopause?
Decline in estrogen
Physiological changes of adulthood) what do hormonal changes in women lead to (4)
-decline of estrogen which brings menopause
-increase in abdominal fat
-increase in risk of CVD
-accelerated loss of bone mass
Physiological changes of adulthood) hormonal changes in men
Gradual decline in testosterone level which leads to decline in muscle mass
Physiological changes of adulthood) body composition changes in adults: (2)
-decrease in muscle mass
Physiological changes of adulthood) body composition changes in adults: fat redistribution (2)
-Gains in the central & intra-abdominal space
- decrease in subcutaneous fat
Physiological changes of adulthood) what does the fat redistribution is associated with risk of chronic disease? (6)
-coronary artery disease
Maintaining a healthy body) age-related changes: what happens to caloric expenditure ? and why?
Declines 2% per decade during early adulthood due to decrease of resting metabolic rate and activity level
Maintaining a healthy body) what happens to physical working capacity?
Declines 5-10% per decade in older adults
Determining energy needs in adults) 3 categories to formulate energy needs
-basil metabolic rate
-Theremin effect of food
-physical activity energy expenditure
Determining energy needs in adults) basil metabolic rate: what is this based on?
- Involuntary processes
- *what it takes to maintain body weight from doing anything at all
Determining energy needs in adults) basil metabolic rate: how is this often measured as? (2)
-resting energy expenditure
-resting metabolic rate
Determining energy needs in adults) Thermic effect of food
Metabolism of food
Determining energy needs in adults) physical activity energy expenditure : what are 2 categories within this one?
-non-exercise activity thermogenesis
Determining energy needs in adults) which of the 3 categories varies the most?
Physical activity energy expenditure
5 factors that impacts energy needs
Ball park caloric levels) weight maintenance
15 calories per pound
Ball park caloric levels) weight loss
13 calories per pound
Ball park caloric levels) weight gain
17 calories per pound
Determining energy needs in adults) estimate with equations: Mifflin- St. Jeer energy estimation formula
More accurate than old Harris-benedict equation for overweight and obese people
LOok at the formula in slide 20 just in case we need to learn male and female formulary
What is a calorie?
Amount of energy needed to raise the temp of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celsius
Determining energy needs in adults) Direct calorimetry: where does measurement take place in
Measurement of heat production in chamber
Determining energy needs in adults) Direct calorimetry: how does it work?
-heat generated by body transferred to air and walls
Determining energy needs in adults) Direct calorimetry: how is it measured by?
Measured by recording the temperature change in the air and water
Determining energy needs in adults) Direct calorimetry: what are strengths ?
Determining energy needs in adults) Direct calorimetry: what are limitations? (2)
-expensive to build and maintain
-confined to chamber
Determining energy needs in adults) indirect calorimetry: how does it calculate?
Calculates heat produced based on gas exchange
Determining energy needs in adults) indirect calorimetry: what does it determine?
Resting energy expenditure while is nearly = to BMR
Determining energy needs in adults) indirect calorimetry: strengths? (2)
-easy to measure
Determining energy needs in adults) indirect calorimetry: limitations (2)
-based on assumption of steady state
-confined to metabolic cart
Determining energy needs in adults) doubly labeled water: what are limitations?
Determining energy needs in adults) which is the gold standard for measuring free living total energy expenditure method?
Doubly labeled water
Determining energy needs in adults) doubly labeled water: how does the process work? (2)
-subjects are given a dose of tagged water
-excretion of isotopes in saliva and urine is used to calculate average energy utilization over several days
Determining energy needs in adults) doubly labeled water: why is the water referred to as tagged?
Water is tagged with an uncommon isotope
Composition of weight lost chart: calories restriction percentage of fat and fat free mass loss?
75%: calorie restriction
25% fat free mass
Composition of weight lost chart: percent of fat and fat free mass lost when calorie restricting and exercise? (2)
-88%: fat mass
-12% fat free mass
3500 kcal rule) what's one example of dynamic changes and not static?
The lower the body weight the lower the REE and energy requirements
Protein consumption AND TEF (Thermic effect of food)
The more protein one consumes the higher TEF will be
Dynamic mathematical models of human energy regulation and weight change have been developed.. it takes in account 3 things
-composition of weight lost
- -metabolic adaptations
- *changes in energy needs
What is NIddk?
Body weight simulator
Dietary recommendation) dietary guidance systems...(4)
-sets of dietary and lifestyle recommendations
-based on lasted scientific information
-developed to promote health and prevent disease
Key components of the US system are the dietary guidelines for Americans and my plate
Dietary recommendation) dietary guidance systems focus on? (6)
-limiting saturated fat intake
-limiting trans fats
-keeping sodium low
-regular physical activity
-energy intake= energy expenditure
-consume greater amounts of fruits, veggies, fiber, and low fat dairy products
Acceptable micronutrients distribution ranges: what is the acceptable range for fats?
Acceptable micronutrients distribution ranges: what is the acceptable range for carbs?
Acceptable micronutrients distribution ranges: acceptable range for protein?
AI for water) men
AI for water) women
How is water intake measured in? (2)`
Is there an upper level intake for water ?
No but toxicity can occur
- cause cells to swell which leads to intracranial pressure
- *results in headaches, confusion, coma
beverage intake recommendation) 3 things to consider
-consume fewer beverages containing fats and added sugar
-beverage intake must be considered as total calorie intake
-choose beverages that fit into dairy, veggies, fruit groups
Alcohol) percent that drink alcohol
Is there evidence to linking caffeine containing fluids with dehydration?
DRI committee and caffeine containing beverage?
They concluded that the beverages contribute to the total daily water intake
What do dietary supplements help out with? (2)
-low calorie or nutrient restricted diets
What are functional foods?
food products that have a physiological benefit or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions
Physical activity helps to... (4)
-meet physical activity demands of work and leisure comfortably
-manage weight and reduce disease risk factors
-support physical and mental health
-enhance quality of life
Physical activity recommendations) at least how many minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical actiivty
Physical activity recommendations) at least how many minutes per week of vigorous intensity physical activity
75 minutes per week
For additional benefits) how many minutes per week for moderate intensity and vigorous intensity?
-300 mins of moderate intensity
-150 mins vigorous intensity
For additional benefits) how many times a week muscle strengthening ?
2 times a week
Regular physical activity leads to... (3)
-increase in cardiorespiratory fitness
-increases in muscle strength
-changes in body composition
regular physical activity leads to... Changes in body composition (2)
-reduced fat mass
-increased lean mass
Caloric restriction and aerobic physical activity
Even without caloric restriction, aerobic physical activity results in decrease of adiposity
Nutrition intervention for risk reduction) types of interventions (3)
-policy and system changes
Nutrition intervention for risk reduction) individual counseling
Increase knowledge and encourage behavior change
Nutrition intervention for risk reduction) multi-component programs
- Social and environment supports
- *purchase info about calorie/fat content, heather food options in vending machines
Nutrition intervention for risk reduction) policy and system
Affect quality, availability, and affordability of food
Living in poverty is linked to..(2)
-increased rates of obesity and adverse health outcomes
What is food insecurity?
Difficulty providing enough food for all family members at some time during the year due to lack of resources
Public food and nutrition programs) (4)
-gov't extension programs
-meals on wheels
-soup kitchens and shelters for homeless