Infection Control

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Author:
Mingming
ID:
289810
Filename:
Infection Control
Updated:
2014-11-21 21:40:16
Tags:
Infection Control Health Care
Folders:
Health Care
Description:
Short Quiz #2
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  1. Sickness was caused by ___
    evil spirits
  2. Diseases were caused by very small living things called ___
    germs
  3. He proved the germ theory by making 2 important discoveries about bacteria
    Louis Pasteur
  4. unicellular organisms
    Bacteria
  5. 2 important discoveries of Louis Pasteur about bacteria
    • many diseases are caused by bacteria
    • bacteria could be killed by excess heat
  6. It is the process of heating milk to 140o F (60o C) and keeping it all at that temperature for one-half hour
    Pasteurization
  7. It kills harmful bacteria and makes milk safe for us to drink
    Pasteurization
  8. He is the father of aseptic surgery
    Joseph Lister
  9. He found out that germs could also be killed by carbolic acid
    Joseph Lister
  10. He recognized that many deaths seemed to be connected with unclean conditions
    Joseph Lister
  11. He was the first one to want surgical wound kept clean and the air in the Operating Room kept clean
    Joseph Lister
  12. Amputation decreased from ___
    45%-15%
  13. The primary source or means of spreading infection
    individual health worker
  14. it is a very small microorganism. It cannot be seen with the naked eye but only through the use of a microscope
    germ
  15. What are the types of microorganisms?
    • Bacteria
    • Viruses
    • Fungi
    • Parasites
  16. they are the most common infection-causing microorganism
    bacteria
  17. What are the characteristics of bacteria
    • very small
    • occur nearly everywhere in nature
    • they occur most abundantly where they find food, moisture and a temperature suitable for their growth and multiplication
  18. they consist primarily of nucleic acid and therefore must enter living cells in order to reproduce
    viruses
  19. it includes yeast and molds
    fungi
  20. they live on other living things
    Parasites
  21. they are best known to the average person by the diseases they caused in the human beings
    Microorganisms
  22. they are disease producing microorganisms
    Pathogens
  23. Pathogens grow best at body temperature ___, ___
    • 98.6F
    • 37o C
  24. they destroy human tissue by using it as food
    pathogens
  25. they are the waste products of pathogens and are absorbed and poison the body
    toxins
  26. they are microorganisms that are necessary for health and usually live and grow in a specific location
    Normal Flora
  27. it is the chemical change in food
    fermentation
  28. Microbes each have their own normal environment called ___
    Natural Habitat
  29. blood infection
    bacteremia
  30. it belongs to the colon where it helps to digest food
    E. coli
  31. conditions affecting the growth of bacteria
    • moisture
    • temperature
    • oxygen
    • light
  32. high temperature kills most bacteria
    107 F
  33. most disease causing bacteria grow more rapidly
    50 F to 110 F
  34. normal human body temperature. Bacteria thrive easily on and in human body
    98.6 F
  35. low temperature kill bacteria but retard their activity and growth rate
    32 F
  36. they require oxygen to live
    aerobic bacteria
  37. they can survive without oxygen
    anaerobic bacteria
  38. ___ favors the development of bacteria. They become very active and multiply rapidly
    Darkness
  39. ___ is bacteria's worst enemy
    Light
  40. they are bacteria that have formed hardshells around themselves as defense, very difficult to kill and can even live in boiling water
    spores
  41. chain of infection
    • etiological agent
    • reservoir
    • portal of exit from reservoir
    • methods of transmission
    • portal of entry to the susceptible host
    • susceptible host
  42. the extent to which any microorganism is capable of producing infectious process depends on:
    • number of microorganisms present
    • the virulence and potency of the microorganism
    • the ability of the microorganisms to enter the body
    • the susceptibility of the host
    • the ability of the microorganisms to live in the hosts body
  43. sources of microorganisms
    reservoir
  44. before an infection can establish itself in a host, microorganisms must leave the reservoir
    portal of exit from reservoir
  45. what are the portals of exit?
    mouth, nose, anus, vagina, urinary meatus, open wound
  46. it is the first line of defense
    intact skin
  47. Mechanisms/ methods of transmission
    • direct transmission
    • indirect transmission
    • airborne transmission
  48. types of indirect transmission
    • vehicle borne
    • vector borne
  49. substance that serves as an intermediate means to support and introduce an infectious agent to susceptible host through suitable portal of entry
    vehicle borne
  50. animal or flying/crawling insects
    vector borne
  51. before a person can become infected, microorganisms must enter the body
    portal of entry to the susceptible host
  52. any person who is at risk of infection
    susceptible host
  53. they are directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses, fungi or other infectious agents
    specific defenses
  54. substance that induces a state of sensitivity to immune responsiveness
    antigen
  55. mediated defenses
    • antibody
    • cell
  56. factors increasing susceptibility to infection
    • age
    • heredity
    • nature, number and duration of physical and emotional stressor
    • resistance to infection
    • some medical therapies
    • certain medications
    • any disease that lessens body defenses to infection
  57. supporting defenses of a susceptible host
    • hygiene
    • balanced diet
    • fluids
    • rest and sleep
    • immunizations
  58. types of infection
    • local
    • systemic
    • acute
    • chronic
    • nosocomial
  59. it is the process by which stains of microorganisms become resident flora
    colonization
  60. limited to the specific part of the body where microorganisms remain
    local
  61. if the microorganisms spread and damage different parts of the body
    systemic
  62. it can lead to septicemia
    systemic
  63. generally appears suddenly or last a short time
    acute
  64. occurs slowly, over a very long period of time, and may last months or years
    chronic
  65. associated with the delivery of health care services in a health care facility
    nosocomial
  66. may develop during a client's stay in a facility or manifest after discharge
    nosocomial
  67. freedom from disease causing microorganisms
    asepsis
  68. it is the effort to prevent spread of microorganisms
    infection control
  69. types of asepsis
    • medical asepsis
    • surgical asepsis
  70. it includes all practices intended to confine a specific microorganism to a specific area, limiting the number, growth and transmission
    medical asepsis
  71. refers to practices that keep an area or object free from all microorganisms includes practices that destroy all microorganisms and spores
    surgical asepsis
  72. it is protecting the patient against becoming infected a second time by the same microorganism
    reinfection
  73. it is protecting the patient against becoming infected by new or different type of microorganism from equipment, another patient or a member of the hospital staff
    cross contamination
  74. they are machines that produce high temperature, pressurized steam
    autoclaves
  75. supplies and equipments that comes in contact with an open wound or the blood stream
    critical items
  76. supplies and equipments that are used in the care of patients but do not come in contact with open or draining areas
    non-critical items
  77. it refers to measures designed to prevent the spread of infections or potentially infectious microorganisms to health, personnel, clients and visitors
    isolation
  78. category-specific isolation precautions
    • strict isolation
    • contact isolation
    • respiratory isolation
    • tuberculosis isolation
    • enteric precautions
    • drainage/ secretion precaution
  79. provided precautions for specific diseases
    disease-specific isolation precautions
  80. techniques to be used with all clients to decrease the risks of transmitting unidentified pathogens
    universal precautions
  81. employs generic infection control precautions for all clients except those with few diseases transmitted through the air
    body substance isolation
  82. cdc isolation precautions
    • standard precautions
    • transmision based precautions, droplet precaution, contact precaution, airborne precaution
  83. types of isolation precaution
    • category specific isolation precautions
    • disease specific isolation precautions
    • universal precautions
    • body substance isolation
    • cdc isolation precautions
    • isolation practices
    • disposal of spoiled equipment and and supplies
    • transporting clients with infection
    • sterile technique
    • infection control for health workers
  84. it is designed to decrease the risk of transmission of disease through body fluids and is used when caring for all patients regardless of the patient's diagnosis and whether or not the patient is known to have infectious disease
    standard precaution
  85. secretions and excretions except swear, regardless of whether or not they contain blood
    all body fluids
  86. standard precaution applies to:
    • blood
    • all body fluids
    • non-intact skin
    • mucus membrane
  87. designed for patients documented or suspected to be infected with pathogens that require extra precautions in addition with the "standard precautions"
    transmission based precautions
  88. types of transmission based precaution
    • contact precautions
    • droplet precaution
    • airborne precaution
  89. used for patients known to be infected with a microorganism that is not easily treated with antibiotics and can be transmitted easily by direct contact between the patient and the health care worker
    contact precautions
  90. for patients known or suspected to be infected with microorganisms transmitted by droplets that can be generated by the patient during coughing sneezing etc
    droplet precaution
  91. for patients known to be infected with microorganisms transmitted by droplet uclei that remain suspended in the air  and can be widely dispersed
    airborne precautions
  92. isolation practices
    • personal protective equipment
    • gloves
    • gowns
    • face masks
    • eyewear
  93. disposal of soiled equipment and supplies
    • bagging
    • linens
    • laboratory specimens
    • dishes
    • blood pressure equipment
    • thermometer
    • disposable needles, syringes ad sharps
  94. sterile technique
    • sterile field
    • sterile gloving
  95. protects the person against all microorganisms, regardless of prior exposure
    nonspecific defenses
  96. nonspecific defenses
    • anatomic and physiologic barriers
    • inflammation response
  97. what are the stages of infection
    • incubation period
    • prodromal stage
    • full stage of illness
    • convalescent period
  98. interval between the pathogen's invasion of the body and the appearance of symptoms of infection
    incubation period
  99. hi
  100. it is the most infectious stage . Symptoms are present but vague and non specific.
    prodromal stage
  101. the presence of specific signs and symptoms indicates the full stage of illness
    full stage of illness
  102. recovery period from infection
    convalescent period

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