Are characterized by CNS stimulation and include agitation, delusions (imagination that someone is working w me to do something), hallucinations (perception of stimulation w/o the stimulus), insomnia, and paranoia (a fear or something).
A-D-H-I- P = agitation-delution-hallucination-Insomnia-paranoia.
What are negative symptom in schizophrenia?
Are characterized by lack of pleasure, lack of motivation, blunted affect (talking make a joke and they don't laugh), poverty of speech.
What is psychoses?
Psychoses is a major emotional disorder w impairment of mental functioning.
Hallmark: loss of contact w reality.
Schizophrenia is a type of chronic psychosis.
what are the therapy goals in schizophrenia? How long do they take to work? what kind of medicine is it used?
Normalize patterns of sleeping and eating.
Increase ability to self care and socialization.
It takes around 2 months for these therapeutic effects.
Meds: antipsychotic meds.
What type of antipsychotics are there? describe their functionality and side effects.
There are two types: First generation antipsychotic (FGAs) and Second generation antipsychotic (SGSs)
First generation antipsychotic (conventional antipscychotics): block dopamine receptors in the CNS, and cause serious movement disorders or EPS -- also 10x less expensive than SGAs.
Second generation antipsychotics (atypical antipsychotics) : Moderate blockage of dopamine, but stronger blockage of serotonin -- Produce less extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) but produce risk of metabolic effects.
What are extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)? which generation are the more associated with?
Drugs: Theophylline (used in asthma), Theobromine, caffeine and dietary sources (chocolate, desserts, soft drinks, cola nut).
MOA: Reversible blockade of adenosine receptors.
PE: CNS, Heart, Blood vessels, etc.
PK: absorbed in the GI tract, eliminated by hepatic metabolism.
TU: neonatal apnea, promoting wakefulness.
AT: stimulation of the CNS, tachycardia, respiratory stimulation, sensory phenomena.
ADHD management overview? what are the 5 most important things when assessing a pt w ADHD?
Cognitive therapy and stimulant drug.
Could also use Tricycle antidepressants (make the person sleepy) Bupropion (wellbutrin).
5 things: High and weight, HR and BP, sleep.
types of anxiety disorders? drugs use?
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): non-drug approach first -- Benzos, nonbenzos Buspirone (BuSpar) which is kind of a CNS stimulant. -- Paroxetine (paxil) or Escitalopram (lexapro) -- kava or melatonin.
Panic Disorder: antidepressants (SSRIs, Tricyclic antidepressants, MAOIs) or Benzos.
Social anxiety disorder (social phobia), post-dramatic stress disorder (PTSD): usually use SSRI first line and TCAs depends on the pts's response.
What is the Drug of choice for older adults?
TACs aggravate conditions in older adults (orthostatic hypotension and anticholinergic effects)
MAOIs cause HTN crisis (tymanine)
Older adults have higher serum levels bc of the albumin protein.