Chapter 16 Lecture 2

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  1. Everything that happens in stage two is happening __. Why?
    • twice
    • because of the 2 3-carbon sugar
  2. Ist gain of ATP is in what step?
    the step catalyzed by phosphoglycerate kinase
  3. 3-phosphoglycerate has __.
    not much potential for making ATP
  4. 3-phosphoglycerate is catalyzed by __ to 2-phosphoglycerate. In the next step, which is catalyzed by __, what happens. 

    The step in which phosphoenolpyruvate is catalyzed to pyruvate, what happens?
    • phosphoglycerate mutase
    • enolase
    • water is lost
    • pyruvate kinase catalyzes the reaction and ATP is formed
  5. Once 2 ATP in, everything else happens __, yet we have an __. 

    • spontaneously
    • input of energy

    • 1) may be because there's so much substrate that caues reaction to move forward
    • 2) coupling of a nonspontaneous to spontaneous reaction
  6. Two points of the glycolytic pathway?
    1) allowed capture of enough energy to let it get on inorganic phosphate

    2) e- can be pumped into 3rd pathway--> ETC (only in presence of oxygen)
  7. What are the three fates of pyruvate?
    acetaldehyde (loss of CO2 and production of NAD+)--> ethanol 

    lactate (production of NAD+) 

    acetyl CoA (with loss of CO2)--> further xidation
  8. For the alcohol and lactice acid  fermentation. what is important?
    • must regenerate NAD+ from NADH. Electrons go to 
    • 1) oxygen
    • 2) molecule that regenerates NAD+
  9. In order to get max ATP, what must happen?
    in order to get MAX ATP, do it in presence of oxygen. RElease CO2 and get large amount of ATP. There are many single-celled organisms that function by anaerobic respiration
  10. Pyruvate to ethanol pathway?
    pyruvate--> acetaldehyde--> ethanol 

    1) pyruvate--pyruvate decarboxylase--> acetaldehyde

    2) acetaldehyde--alcohol dehydrogenase--> ethanol
  11. Pyruvate decarboxylase __ 

    alcohol dehydrogenase __.
    removes a CO2

    takes electrons and uses them to reduce acetaldehyde to ethanol
  12. What does zinc do in alcohol dehydrogenase?
    polarizes substrate to accept hydride

    • --> held in place by cysteine and histidine
    • draw electrons towards it
  13. What is the mechanism for lactate formation?
    pyruvate--lactate dehydrogenase--> lactate

    in absence of oxygen
  14. WHat is the limiting factor in lactate fermentation?
    pH as the acid builds up; not NAD+
  15. What is a similar conformation in the dehydrogenases?
    Rossman fold: a similar domain in dehydrogenase

    bind NAD+ in a similar way

    when NAD+ is a cofactor, this motif is involved in binding
  16. Besides glucose, what else can be fed into the pathway?
    galactose--> converted to glucose-6phosphate

    fructose--> F-6P
  17. Fructose pathway?
    6 carbon sugar entering same pathway f

    1) gets phosphorylated; ATP invested * at this point, it is cleaved int o 2 three carbon sugars by fructose 1-phosphate aldolase

    glyceraldehyde and DHAP are products

    Glyceraldeyhde must be converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
  18. How many ATP are invested to get from fructose to product?
    2 ATP to get to the same point as part 1 of glycolysis
  19. Going from galactose to galactose 1-phosphate, what happens?
    galactokinase needs to be phosphorylated

    converted it to glucose 6-phosphate
  20. Things that can go wrong when using lactose and being lactose intolerant.
    bacteria use the lactose that you can't and convert it to methane and make it painful to you
  21. What is galactosemia?
    an enzyme involved is deficient causing build up of galactose--> conveted to galactitol and draws water to tissues--> build up of water--> cataracts
Card Set:
Chapter 16 Lecture 2
2014-11-22 04:28:30
Test Four
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