BIO 377 CARLA #15

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Author:
tames38
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289842
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BIO 377 CARLA #15
Updated:
2014-11-22 14:46:14
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BIO 377 CARLA 15 Exam3
Folders:
science,medical physiology
Description:
CARLA question set #15 for BIO 377 at UMaine (Fall 2014). This set pertains to Exam 3.
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  1. Name the layers of the GI tract wall, in order, from lumen to external surface.
    • 1. mucosa
    • 2. submucosa
    • 3. muscularis externa
    • 4. serosa
  2. Enterocytes of the mucous membrane of the mucosal layer are classified as _________ if they secrete fluids and enzymes into the lumen and _________ if they release hormones into the bloodstream.
    exocrine cells; endocrine cells
  3. The enteric nervous system receives its inputs from ________.
    autonomic neurons & sensory neurons in the wall of the GI tract
  4. What muscle groups are found in the muscularis externa?
    • inner circular layer capable of slow-wave potentials
    • outer longitudinal layer that requires neural input for contraction
  5. What membrane lines the abdominal cavity?
    peritoneum
  6. The technical word for chewing is _______.
    mastication
  7. Gastric reflux occurs when material flows backwards through which structure?
    lower esophageal sphincter
  8. The flow of chyme from the stomach to the small intestine is regulated by the _________.
    pyloric sphincter
  9. What are rugae?
    folds in the stomach that can flatten to expand the stomach volume
  10. ________ cells are responsible for secreting pepsinogen into the lumen of the stomach.
    chief
  11. What do parietal cells secrete?
    hydrogen ions & intrinsic factor
  12. What do neck cells of gastric pits secrete?
    mucus
  13. What protects the stomach wall from the acidic lumenal contents?
    the gastric mucosal barrier
  14. To increase the absorptive efficiency of the small intestine, the surface area of the mucosa is increased by the presence of folds in the wall called ______, and projections of the cell membrane called ___________.
    villi; microvilli
  15. Name the sections of the small intestine, in order, from stomach to colon.
    • 1. duodenum
    • 2. jejunum
    • 3. ileum
  16. What is the brush border?
    microvilli from epithelial cells lining the small intestine
  17. Which sphincter of the GI tract is composed of skeletal muscle?
    external anal sphincter
  18. Name 4 components of saliva.




    Original question text: "Which of the following is NOT one of the components of saliva?"
    • -bicarbonate ions
    • -mucus
    • -amylases
    • -lysozymes

    Answer to original question: lipases
  19. What structure secretes lipase?
    pancreas
  20. In order to convert amino acids to fatty acids and/or gluconeogenic precursors, an ammonium ion must be removed in the liver and converted to ________ before being excreted by the kidneys.
    urea
  21. The absorption of glucose involves _______ across the apical membrane and _________ across the basolateral membrane.
    secondary active transport; facilitated diffusion
  22. In order to begin the process of fat digestion, the fat globules must be __________.
    emulsified by bile salts
  23. Emulsification aids in the digestion of fats by _________.
    increasing the surface area of the fat globule exposed to enzymes
  24. Pancreatic lipase degrades triglycerides into ________.
    a monoglyceride and 2 free fatty acids
  25. Digestion products of lipases are readily exchanged in the lumen with __________.
    micelles
  26. Once the degradation products of triglycerides have entered the epithelial cells that line the small intestines, they ___________.
    are reassembled into triglycerides and packaged by the Golgi apparatus into chylomicrons
  27. Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the ________ through _________.
    ileum; complexing with intrinsic factor
  28. A lack of intrinsic factor can result in ________.
    pernicious anemia
  29. The central component of the long reflex pathway typically involves the _______ nervous system, which acts to promote an increase in gastrointestinal activity.
    parasympathetic
  30. The secretion of leptin causes ______.
    decreased sensation of hunger
  31. The increase in absorbed nutrients in blood will cause _______ secretion to increase, which decreases the sensation of hunger.
    insulin
  32. The presence of food in the duodenum will cause _______ secretion to increase, which decreases the sensation of hunger.
    cholescystokinin
  33. In response to the presence of food within the duodenum, the increased release of _________ will primarily stimulate an increase in bicarbonate secretion from the exocrine pancreas.
    secretin
  34. The secretion of secretin is primarily regulated by _______.
    acid content of the duodenum
  35. Cholecystokinin faciltates digestion of fats by stimulating ________.
    gall bladder contraction & relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi
  36. Bile secretion is stimulated by _________.
    cholecystokinin (CKK)
  37. Propelling food to the back of the mouth with the tongue initiates the _________.
    swallowing reflex
  38. Where in the GI tract would you find chyme, HCO3- , amylase, lipase, and nucleases?
    duodenum
  39. Put the events of lipid breakdown in the correct order, starting with (A) large fat globules:

    (A) large fat globules
    (B) micelles
    (C) chylomicrons
    (D) fat droplets
    (E) monoglycerides
    A, D, B, E, C

    • 1. large fat globules
    • 2. fat droplets
    • 3. micelles
    • 4. monoglycerides
    • 5. chylomicrons
  40. The secretion of pancreatic juice is stimulated by ________.
    secretin

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