BIO 377 CARLA #14

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
289866
Filename:
BIO 377 CARLA #14
Updated:
2014-11-22 23:35:28
Tags:
BIO 377 CARLA 14 Exam3
Folders:
science,medical physiology
Description:
CARLA question set #14 for BIO 377 at UMaine (Fall 2014). This set pertains to Exam 3.
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  1. The regulation of water and ion excretion occurs primarily within the _______.
    late distal tubules & collecting ducts
  2. Name two sources of water input.




    Original question text: "Which of the following is a source of water input?"
    GI tract & metabolism
  3. The force that moves water out of the distal tubules and collecting ducts is _______.
    an osmotic gradient
  4. The primary driving force for water movement out of the proximal tubules is _________.
    greater osmolarity of the peritubular fluid
  5. The osmotic gradient in the medullary region of the kidneys is established and maintained by _______.
    Na+/K+/Cl- cotransporters in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
  6. A longer loop of Henle would result in __________.
    • higher osmolarity in the deeper regions of the renal medulla
    • ability to produce a more concentrated urine (lots of solute, little water)
  7. If nothing else is removed from the filtrate once it reaches the late distal tubules, the urine excreted would be _______ and _________.
    low osmolarity; large volume
  8. The volume of the obligatory water loss is limited by _________.
    the maximal osmolarity of the medullary osmotic gradient
  9. In the early portion of the collecting duct (in cortical interstitial fluid), an increase in water permeability will result in a(n) _________.
    decrease in filtrate volume
  10. Where is ADH released from?
    posterior pituitary
  11. At high concentration of antidiuretic hormone, the extent of water reabsorption in the collecting ducts is ________, causing urine output to ________.
    high; decrease
  12. The strongest stimulus for the release of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary is a(n) _________.
    increase in plasma osmolarity
  13. In diabetes insipidus, blood levels of ______ are decreased, causing an increase in ________.
    ADH; urine volume
  14. Increased urination is called _________.
    polyuria & diuresis
  15. Which condition(s) would be associated with hypernatremia?



    Hint: _______ plasma _________
    increased plasma sodium
  16. In the renal tubules, the Na+/K+ pump is located ________.
    in the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubules
  17. Aldosterone is released from the _______ in response to _________.
    adrenal cortex; increases in plasma potassium
  18. What role do the macula densa cells have in controlling renin release?
    They detect changes in the amount of sodium and chloride in the distal tubules, and communicate these changes to juxtaglomerular cells, which secrete renin

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