BIO 377 CARLA #14
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The regulation of water and ion excretion occurs primarily within the _______.
late distal tubules & collecting ducts
Name two sources of water input.
Original question text: "Which of the following is a source of water input?"
GI tract & metabolism
The force that moves water out of the distal tubules and collecting ducts is _______.
an osmotic gradient
The primary driving force for water movement out of the proximal tubules is _________.
greater osmolarity of the peritubular fluid
The osmotic gradient in the medullary region of the kidneys is established and maintained by _______.
Na+/K+/Cl- cotransporters in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
A longer loop of Henle would result in __________.
- higher osmolarity in the deeper regions of the renal medulla
- ability to produce a more concentrated urine (lots of solute, little water)
If nothing else is removed from the filtrate once it reaches the late distal tubules, the urine excreted would be _______ and _________.
low osmolarity; large volume
The volume of the obligatory water loss is limited by _________.
the maximal osmolarity of the medullary osmotic gradient
In the early portion of the collecting duct (in cortical interstitial fluid), an increase in water permeability will result in a(n) _________.
decrease in filtrate volume
Where is ADH released from?
At high concentration of antidiuretic hormone, the extent of water reabsorption in the collecting ducts is ________, causing urine output to ________.
The strongest stimulus for the release of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary is a(n) _________.
increase in plasma osmolarity
In diabetes insipidus, blood levels of ______ are decreased, causing an increase in ________.
ADH; urine volume
Increased urination is called _________.
polyuria & diuresis
Which condition(s) would be associated with hypernatremia?
Hint: _______ plasma _________
increased plasma sodium
In the renal tubules, the Na+/K+ pump is located ________.
in the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubules
Aldosterone is released from the _______ in response to _________.
adrenal cortex; increases in plasma potassium
What role do the macula densa cells have in controlling renin release?
They detect changes in the amount of sodium and chloride in the distal tubules, and communicate these changes to juxtaglomerular cells, which secrete renin
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