CARLA question set #14 for BIO 377 at UMaine (Fall 2014). This set pertains to Exam 3.
The regulation of water and ion excretion occurs primarily within the _________.
late distal tubules & collecting ducts
Name two sources of water input.
Original question text: "Which of the following is a source of water input?"
GI tract & metabolism
The force that moves water out of the distal tubules and the collecting ducts is ___________.
an osmotic gradient
The primary driving force for water movement out of the proximal tubules is _________.
greater osmolarity of the peritubular fluid
The osmotic gradient in the medullary region of the kidneys is established and maintained by __________.
Na+/K+/Cl- cotransporters in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
A longer loop of Henle would result in _______.
higher osmolarity in the deeper regions of the renal medulla
the ability to produce a more concentrated urine (lots of solute, little water)
If nothing else is removed from the filtrate once it reaches the late distal tubules, the urine excreted would be ________ and ________.
low osmolarity; large volume
The volume of the obligatory water loss is limited by _________.
the maximal osmolarity of the medullary osmotic gradient
In the early portion of the collecting duct (in cortical interstital fluid), an increase in water permeability will result in a(n) ________.
decrease in filtrate volume
Where is ADH released from?
At high concentrations of antidiuretic hormone, the extent of water reabsorption in the collecting ducts is _________, causing urine output to _________.
The strongest stimulus for the release of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary is a(n) __________.
increase in plasma osmolarity
In diabetes insipidus, blood levels of _______ are decreased, causing an increase in _______.
ADH; urine volume
Increased urination is called _______.
polyuria & diuresis
Which condition would be associated with hypernatremia?
increased plasma sodium
In the renal tubules, the Na+/K+ pump is located ________.
in the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubules
Aldosteroneis released from the ________ in response to ________.
adrenal cortex; increases in plasma potassium
What role do the macula densa cells have in controlling renin release?
They detect changes in the amount of sodium and chloride in the distal tubules, and communicate these changes to juxtaglomerular cells, which secrete renin.
Name 4 symptoms of hyperkalemia.
Original question text: "Which of the following is NOT a symptom of hyperkalemia?"
Answer to original question: hypotension
Which of the following hormones is a steroid?
calcitriol & aldosterone
Which hormone is derived from vitamin D3?
What hormone decreases plasma calcium levels?
The activity of the respiratory system can increase pH by _________.
a hyperventilation-induced decrease in PCO2
What is the normal range of blood pH?
The most rapid defense against changes in blood pH involves ________.
buffering of hydrogen ions
Severe diarrhea can cause a metabolic acidosis by an increased ________.
loss of bicarbonate
Severe vomiting can cause a metabolic alkalosis by an increased ________.
loss of hydrogen ions
The addition of an acid to blood will cause _______, as compared with that amount of acid being added to pure water.
less of a decrease in pH
Changes in ventilation are able to alter the buffering capacity of blood by affecting ________.
Bicarbonate crosses the apical membrane of the proximal tubule by _________.
conversion to carbon dioxide
A patient is exhibiting several signs of acid-base imbalance. Blood tests reveal that blood pH is 7.3, and bicarbonate and carbon dioxide levels in blood are both low. What is the state of this patient?
metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation
A patient is exhibiting several signs of acid-base imbalance. Blood tests reveal that blood pH is 7.5, and bicarbonate and carbon dioxide levels in blood are both low. What is the state of this patient?
respiratory alkalosis with renal compensation
If a person with a normal body fluid osmolarity drinks a large quantity of water, which of the following would occur in the absence of normal kidney function?
A) hypervolemia B) decreased plasma osmolarity
C) cell shrinkage
d) all of the above
B) decreased plasma osmolarity
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
If someone eats a large quantity of salty potato chips without drinking any water, to correct the situation the kidneys must excrete urine which is higher in _______.
In the absence of ADH, which of the following will decrease?
A) aquaporin synthesis
B) the medullary osmotic gradient
C) urine volume D) urine osmolarity
D) urine osmolarity
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
The signals controlling ADH release come from _______.
osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus
People suffering from diabetes insipidus may have increased ________.
When mean arterial pressure increases, what will increase in response?
Hint: In regards to the kidneys &/or urinary system.
The release of renin is stimulated by a decrease in _______.