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what is the correct sequence of blood flow of the upper limb?
R&L subclavian vein -> axillary artery -> brachial artery -> ulnar & radial arteries -> superficial & deep palmar arches -> digital arteries
what arteries connect to form the arches of the hand?
ulnar and radial arteries form the superficial and deep palmar arches
what does the popliteal arteries do?
supplies the knee joint and muscles of that region.
what does the popliteal arteries become?
the popliteal artery divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries, which supply the anterior and posterior compartments of the leg, respectively
what are the divisions/branches of the IVC?
hepatic vein, R&L gonadal vein, external iliac vein, internal iliac vein
what vessels goes to the lung that comes from the heart?
- pulmonary artery (2) - to the lung from the heart
- pulmonary vein (4) - from lungs to the heart
what vessels carry deoxygenated blood?
pulmonary arteries and umbilical arteries
what vessel carries oxygenated blood?
- mainly arteries and capillaries carry oxygenated blood
- also the pulmonary vein is the only vein that carries oxygenated blood
specify the connection of the R&L atrium of the development of the fetus.
b/c the pressure is greater on the right side of the heart, most of the blood is shunted from the R atrium to the L atrium via the foramen ovale
what is the function of the lymphatic system?
- -Return interstitial fluid back to the bloodstream
- -Transport lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream
- -Production and maturation of lymphocytes
- -Generate an immune response against antigens in the interstitial fluid
what are components of the lymphatic system?
Lymph vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, thymus
where do lymphatic capillaries originate?
they are found interspersed among most blood capillary beds
distinguish what is cisterna chyli.
- rounded sac-like structure, found inferior to the diaphragm
- L&R intestinal and lumbar trunks is drained
distinguish what is a lacteal.
- a special type of lymphatic capillaries found in the small intestine (in GI tract)
- Collect interstitial fluid as well as lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins
- absorbs fats
distinguish the lymphatic trunk.
- L & R lymphatic trunks form from merging lymphatic vessels
- 1. Jugular trunks: Head and neck
- 2. Subclavian trunks: Upper limbs, breasts & superficial thoracic wall
- 3. Bronchiomediastinal trunks: Deep thoracic structures
- 4. Intestinal trunks: Most abdominal structures
- 5. Lumbar trunks: Lower limbs, abdominopelvic wall & pelvic organs
distinguish the right lymphatic duct.
- The right lymphatic duct is located deep to the right clavicle and returns lymph at the junction of the right subclavian and internal jugular veins
- The right lymphatic duct returns lymph from the right side ofthe head and neck, right upper limb and the right side of thethorax
distinguish the thoracic duct.
- the largest lymphatic vessel
- The thoracic duct collects lymph from most of the body (excluding the right lymphatic duct drainage)
- passes through the aortic opening of the diaphragm and returns lymph into the junction between the left subclavian and internal jugular veins
distinguish the T-Lymphocytes
- Make up about 70–85% of body lymphocytes
- 2 T-Lymphocyte groups: Helper T-Lymphocyte & Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte
- Helper T-Lymphocyte: primarily contain the CD4 coreceptor and are referred to as CD4+ cells or T4 cells
- T4 cells initiate and oversee the immune response by secreting cytokines, which are molecules that activate other lymphatic cells
what are NK cells?
- Natural killer cells (are also called large granular lymphocytes)
- Express the CD16 receptors
- Unlike T-cells and B-cells that respond to oneantigen, NK cells can kill a wide variety of infected cells and some cancerous cells
B-Lymphocytes, what does it become when it gets activated?
- B-lymphocytes become activated by cytokines from helper T-lymphocytes
- becomes Plasma cells (produces antibodies) & Memory B-Lymphocytes (confer immunity to certain antigens for many years or a lifetime)
distinguish what is immunoglobulins.
- a.k.a antibodies
- Contain antigen receptors to only one antigen
- help destroy or neutralize specific foreign atigens
- 5 main classes: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE
what is the function of the spleen?
- 1. Initiates an immune response when antigens are found in blood
- 2. Serves as a reservoir for erythrocytes and platelets
- 3. Phagocytizes old, defective erythrocytes and platelets
- 4. Phagocytizes bacteria and other foreign materials
what is the function of the lymph nodes?
filter antigens from the lymph and initiate an immune response
what is the function of the thymus gland?
promote the development of specific cells of the immune system called T-Lymphocytes
what is the function of the red bone marrow in the lymphatic system?
produces lymphocytes that supports the body's immune system
- Alveolar ducts end with small saccular outpocketings called alveoli
- The thin wall of the alveolus is the structure where respiratory gases (oxygen and carbondioxide) diffuse between the blood and the air in the lungs
what is the difference between conducting portion and respiratory portion?
- conducting portion: transports air (includes nose, nasal cavity, and pharynx of upper respiratory tract and the larynx, trachea)
- respiratory portion: gas exchange with the blood (respiratory bronchioles and alveolar duct, and alveoli)
what is the function of the respiratory system?
- inhalation (inspiration), exhalation (expiration)
- frontal sinus
- ethmoidal sinus
- sphenoidal sinus
- maxillary sinus
- all are lined with the same pseudostratified ciliated columnar epitheliam
distinguish the pharynx
- Region that is shared by the respiratory and digestive tracts
- Divided into the following regions:
distinguish the larynx
- also called the voice box
- contain adam's apple (laryngeal prominence)
- Passageway for air; Produces sound for speech
- Prevents ingested materials form entering the respiratory tract
- Assists in increasing pressure in the abdominal cavity
- Participates in both a sneeze and cough reflex
distinguish the difference between the vocal cords/folds.
- true vocal cord: produces sounds when air passes through them. the vocal folds and rima glottidis form the glottis.
- false vocal cord: no function in sound production, but serve to protect the vocal fold.
what are the different cells found in the lung or what makes up the alveoli?
- Alveolar type I cells: Simple squamous epithelial cells promote rapid diffusion of gases
- Alveolar type II cells: Almost cuboidal in shape and produce pulmonary surfactant, which decreases surface tension within the alveolus and prevents the collapse of alveoli
- Alveolar macrophages (dust cells), may be fixed or free, and engulf any microorganism or particulate matter that makes its way into the alveolus
what is the hilum?
- Bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves pass into and out of the lungs in this region
- All structures within the hilum are termed the root of the lung
what is the difference between visceral pleura and parietal pleura?
- Visceral pleura: tightly adheres to the outside of the lung
- Parietal pleura: lines the pleural cavity itself
- These two membranes are continuous with each other and the space between them is called the pleural cavity