Pattern: Mild cases = normal pattern, Renal enlargement with compression of sinus, Loss of corticomedullary junction; Hypoechoic pattern = edema; Hyperechoic = hemorrhage; Emphysematous = localized or diffuse air pockets
What are the sonographic patterns associated with renal abscess and perinephric abscess?
Symptoms: Hx of diabetes, infection related to renal stones, prolonged UTI, immune system compromised, Diffuse or localized flank pain, Fever, increased WBC count
Pattern: Hypoechoic, thick walled mass in renal parenchyma, May contain septa, internal debris, or gas pockets
What are the clinical symptoms and sonographic patterns related to renal hematoma?
Renal injury due to blunt/sharp trauma
Symptoms: Hx of malignancy, hydro, or cysts, Minimal bleeding = localized or diffuse pain, Massive trauma= severe pain, decreased hematocrit, symptoms of shock, ARF
Pattern: Echogenic, complex, cystic (new to old), Major lacerations>> echogenic line,Doppler>> used to look for disruption of flow
fracture of capsule
fracture of collecting system
What are the clinical symptoms and sonographic characteristics of renal stones?
Symptoms: Size does not correlate with severity of symptoms, Obstructing = sudden severe pain, Micro or gross hematuria
Pattern: Hyperechoic with shadowing, Twinkle artifact( To optimize: *decrease gain *increase color scale (60-80) * threshold @ 90% (color scale))
Most common location = ureter adjacent to ureter-renal pelvis junction
What are the clinical symptoms and sonographic features related to obstructive renal disease?