Cancer Chemotherapy

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  1. What are usual common side effects of non-specific cancer treatment?
    • Alopecia: absence of hair
    • Myolesepretion: low leukocytes, erythrocytes, and thrombocytes
    • Mucositis: inflamation of the mucus in the digestive system.
  2. What is the goal of chemotherapy? general chs?
    • Decrease the size of the neoplasm so that the human immune system can deal w it.
    • drugs may act during the cell's reproductive cycle.
    • Cytotoxic drugs are most active against rapidly diving cells, both normal and malignant.
    • Each dose kills a specific percentage of cells.
  3. what are the type of chemotherapy drugs?
    • Cytotoxic agents.
    • Homones and hormone antagonists.
    • Biologic response modifiers.
    • Targeted drugs.
    • ** glucocorticoids low dose is also added to chemotherapy.
  4. cytotoxic anticancer drugs chs?
    • Largest calss of anticancer drugs.
    • 50% of them are phase-specific.
  5. Hormonal agents, biologic response modifiers, and targeted drugs chs?
    • Hormonal agents: breast cancer and prostate cancer used. -- mimic or block the actions of endogenous hormones.
    • BRM: enhance immune attack against cancer cells, important when use in endocrine and lymph node.
    • TD: bind w specific molecular targets on cancer cells to supress tumor growth and promote cell death.
    • ** sometimes glucocorticoids are added to the treatment in low dose to prevent inflammation.
  6. Postate cancer? breast cancer?
    • PC: lower testosterone production, block testosterone w drugs, may need viagra.
    • BC: most common cancer in the USA, surgery, radiation, cytotoxic drugs, and hormonal drugs.
  7. Patient teaching guidance?
    • Keep all ur appts.
    • Avoid exposure to infection.
    • improve nutrition (no caffeine, calorie count).
    • electric razor to avoid bleeding.
    • purchase wigs before chemotherapy starts.
    • effective contraception while on chemotherapy (bc most of the meds are class X)
    • Take medications to avoid side effects (zofran (nausea), lemotol (diarrhea), etc)
    • Pt/family teaching about drug therapy (stay on the regimen)
  8. Cytoprotective agents?
    • Epoetin: stimulates bone marrow to produce RBCs (bc carful w pts on these meds arbs, ACE inhibitors, antidiuretic--all affecting the kidneys, so careful w HTN, dialysis pts)
    • Neupogen: Treatment of chemo induced neutropenia (to help the maintain a good level)
    • Neumea: Prevent thrombocytopenia.
    • Leukine: decrease neutropenia and risk of infection.
    • Neulasta: increase the number of leukocytes.
  9. Drugs used in the supportive therapy of cancer pts?
    • Allopurinol (often used for gout-hypercalcemia)
    • Analgesics (Opiods, NSAIDs careful w the RBCs breakdown)
    • Antiemetics (sulfan and phenerghan)
  10. Major toxicities of cancer chemotherapy adverse effects?
    • Bone marrow suppression: Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia.
    • Digestive tract injury stomatitis or mucositis (salt water rises, pts usually start w these symptoms)
    • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (antimedics, hydration IV, antidiarrheas)
    • Hyperuricemia (abnormal urica acid in the blood)
  11. Major toxicities of cancer chemotherapy side effects?
    • Alopecia (hair loss)
    • Reproductive toxicity.
    • Local injury from extravasation (PIGS, heacman catheter)
    • Unique toxicities.
    • Carcinogenesis.
  12. What is myelosuppression?
    • a significant AE of most antineoplastic therapy.
    • The extent of hematopoietic depression depends on nadir of cell line and survival of cells.
    • May result in granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia, both are life-threating conditiongs.
Card Set:
Cancer Chemotherapy
2014-11-24 07:01:52

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