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What are usual common side effects of non-specific cancer treatment?
- Alopecia: absence of hair
- Myolesepretion: low leukocytes, erythrocytes, and thrombocytes
- Mucositis: inflamation of the mucus in the digestive system.
What is the goal of chemotherapy? general chs?
- Decrease the size of the neoplasm so that the human immune system can deal w it.
- drugs may act during the cell's reproductive cycle.
- Cytotoxic drugs are most active against rapidly diving cells, both normal and malignant.
- Each dose kills a specific percentage of cells.
what are the type of chemotherapy drugs?
- Cytotoxic agents.
- Homones and hormone antagonists.
- Biologic response modifiers.
- Targeted drugs.
- ** glucocorticoids low dose is also added to chemotherapy.
cytotoxic anticancer drugs chs?
- Largest calss of anticancer drugs.
- 50% of them are phase-specific.
Hormonal agents, biologic response modifiers, and targeted drugs chs?
- Hormonal agents: breast cancer and prostate cancer used. -- mimic or block the actions of endogenous hormones.
- BRM: enhance immune attack against cancer cells, important when use in endocrine and lymph node.
- TD: bind w specific molecular targets on cancer cells to supress tumor growth and promote cell death.
- ** sometimes glucocorticoids are added to the treatment in low dose to prevent inflammation.
Postate cancer? breast cancer?
- PC: lower testosterone production, block testosterone w drugs, may need viagra.
- BC: most common cancer in the USA, surgery, radiation, cytotoxic drugs, and hormonal drugs.
Patient teaching guidance?
- Keep all ur appts.
- Avoid exposure to infection.
- improve nutrition (no caffeine, calorie count).
- electric razor to avoid bleeding.
- purchase wigs before chemotherapy starts.
- effective contraception while on chemotherapy (bc most of the meds are class X)
- Take medications to avoid side effects (zofran (nausea), lemotol (diarrhea), etc)
- Pt/family teaching about drug therapy (stay on the regimen)
- Epoetin: stimulates bone marrow to produce RBCs (bc carful w pts on these meds arbs, ACE inhibitors, antidiuretic--all affecting the kidneys, so careful w HTN, dialysis pts)
- Neupogen: Treatment of chemo induced neutropenia (to help the maintain a good level)
- Neumea: Prevent thrombocytopenia.
- Leukine: decrease neutropenia and risk of infection.
- Neulasta: increase the number of leukocytes.
Drugs used in the supportive therapy of cancer pts?
- Allopurinol (often used for gout-hypercalcemia)
- Analgesics (Opiods, NSAIDs careful w the RBCs breakdown)
- Antiemetics (sulfan and phenerghan)
Major toxicities of cancer chemotherapy adverse effects?
- Bone marrow suppression: Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia.
- Digestive tract injury stomatitis or mucositis (salt water rises, pts usually start w these symptoms)
- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (antimedics, hydration IV, antidiarrheas)
- Hyperuricemia (abnormal urica acid in the blood)
Major toxicities of cancer chemotherapy side effects?
- Alopecia (hair loss)
- Reproductive toxicity.
- Local injury from extravasation (PIGS, heacman catheter)
- Unique toxicities.
What is myelosuppression?
- a significant AE of most antineoplastic therapy.
- The extent of hematopoietic depression depends on nadir of cell line and survival of cells.
- May result in granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia, both are life-threating conditiongs.