peds exam 4
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Chicken Pack (Varicella)
- Agent: Varicella Zoster
- Airborn / direct contact
- Incubation:14-21 days
- Comunicable: 1 day before to 6 days after lessions appeared
- Symptoms: Fever, malice, headache, abdominal pain, clear filled fluid vesicles all over the body.
- Treatment: Supportive, isolation, symptom management.
- Complications: Secondary skin infections from scratching; secondary bacterial infection such as pneumonia, sepsis, scarring, transient thrombocytopenia
- aka hand foot and mouth disease and herpangina
- Agent: coxsackievirus A16; enterovirus 71
- transmission: fecal-oral and respiratory rout
- Symptoms: fever and sore throat;
- Herpangina: papulovesicular lesions on pharynx only kids don't want to eat
- Hand, foot and mouth disease: papulovesicular lesions on inside of cheek, gums, tongue as well as hands and feet
- Treatment: supportive, isolation, topical lotions and cool drinks,
- Agent: corynebacterium diphtheriae
- Transmission: contact with nasal or eye discharge
- Symptoms: fever, anorexia, rhinorrhea, cough, stridor, tonsils and pharynx covered in thick bluish white patches on throat
- Treatment: antibiotics, IV antitoxin, isolation and monitor for respiratory distress
- Aka fifth's disease
- Agent: human parvovirus B19
- Transmission: through respiratory secretions and blood
- Incubation: 4-21 days
- symptoms: flu-like illness, fiery red rash, " slapped face appearance," maculopapular rash on trunk and limbs
- treatment: supportive, isolation, fever control, antipruritics, soothing baths
Haemophilus influenza type B
- Agent: coccobacilli H. influenzae bacteria
- transmission: direct contact or droplet inhalation
- Symptoms: viral upper respiratory tract infection that invades blood stream, may cause meningitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia or sepsis
- Treatment: antibiotics, isolation, prophylaxis for close contacts and antipyretics
- Agent: Orthomyxoviridae, types and B
- Transmission: aerosolized particles, direct contact with secretions
- Symptoms: fever, chills, malaise, Headache, N&V
- Treatment: antivirals for children at risk for complications, isolation, prevent dehydration, comfort
- Agent: Morbillivirus, a member of the paramyxovirus group
- Transmission: airborne, droplet, and contact
- incubation: 10-21 days
- comunicable: 4 days before and 5 days after rash appears
- Symptoms: high fever, conjunctivitis, cough, anorexia, malaise, Koplik spots on oral mucosa 2 days before rash, red blotchy maculopapular rash on face, trunk and limbs, becomes confluent
- Treatment: supportive, antibiotics for secondary infections, isolaion, antipyretics, antitussives, monitor resp status
- complications: OM, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, laryngotracheitis; encephalitis
- Agent: Epstein-Barr virus
- Incubation: 4-6 weeks
- Transmission: direct contact with secretions
- Symptoms: Malaise, headache, fever, fatigue, lymphadenopathy,weakness and lethargy may persist for months
- Treatment: supportive, antipyretics, bed rest
- complications: risk for ruptured spleen, avoid contact sports
- Agent: Rubulavirus
- Transmission: contact with respiratory secretions
- Incubation: 14-21 days
- Communicable: immediately before and after swelling appears
- Symptoms: malaise, fever, pain with chewing, parotid gland swelling
- Treatment: supportive, isolation, comfort measures, disease is self limiting
- Complications: Epididymo-orchitis in older males; may cause sterility, hearing loss, encephalitis, meningitis, myocarditis, arthritis and hepatitis
Pertussis (whooping cough)
- Agent: Bordetella pertussis
- Transmission: respiratory droplets, direct contact with secretions
- Incubation: 6-20 days
- Symptoms: Runny nose, fever, mild cough that gets worse at night, may or may not whooping sound
- Treatment: antibiotics, steroids, isolation, monitor resp status and hydration
- Complications: OM, pneumonia, seizures, hemorrhage, hernia, prolapsed rectum, weight loss, dehydration
- Agent: streptococcus pneumonia
- Transmission: respiratory secretions and droplets
- Symptoms: related to area of infection (Otitis media, sinusitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis.
- Treatment: Antibiotics, isolation, antipyeitics, encourage fluids.
- Agent: polio virus
- Transmission: Fecal oral route, and possible respiratory.
- symptoms: CNS symptoms, respiratory weakness and paralysis.
- Treatment: Supportive, monitor respiratory status, provide comfort.
- AKA Exanthen Subitum; sixth disease
- Transmission: possible respiratory secretions and saliba
- Symptoms: High fever from 3 to 8 days, pale pink, maculopapular rash on trunk, face, and limbs
- Treatment: Supportive, antipyretics, the disease is usually self limiting
- AKA German measles
- Transmission: Droplet or direct contact
- Incubation: 14 to 21 days
- Communicable: 7 days before till 5 days after the rash
- Symptoms: Low grade fever, headache, malice, anorexia, pink non confluent maculopapular rash
- Treatment: Supportive, isolation for pregnant women
- Complications: Teratogenic effect on exposed fetus.
- Agent: Group A B-Hemolytic Streptococci
- Transmission: Contact with respiratory secretions, direct contact
- Symptoms: Pharyngeal (soar throat, common fever) skin manifestations (impetigo)
- Treatment: Antibiotics, fever management, warm fluids
- Agent: Group A B-hemolytic streptococci
- Transmission: Direct contact or droplet
- Incubation: 2 to 5 days
- Communicable: During incubation face, may become carrier
- Symptoms: First 1 to 2 days (white strawberry tongue red pin size rash becomes generalized; absent in face but more intense in folds of joints), by 4 to 5 days (develops red strawberry tongue), by end of the first week (Desquamation of skin occurs, sand paper like on torso, sloughing of soles and palms)
- Treatment: Penicillin or erythromycin, supportive, standard and droplet precaution until 24 hours of antibiotics
- Complications: Peritoyonsillar abscess, Sinusitis, om, glomerulonephritis, acute fever, rheumatic, and poliarthritis,
- Agent: Clostridium Tetani or Tetatus Vacillus
- Transmition: Via wounds
- Symptoms: Neck or jaw stiffness, facial spasms, prolonged muscle contraction.
- Treatment: Tetanus immune globulin, monitor respiratory status, hydration; may need mechanical ventilation
- Agent: Borrelia Burgdorfuri (spirochete)
- Transmission: VIA Tick bite
- Symptoms: Malice, headache, mild fever, joint aches, red bull's eye, rash around tick bite.
- Treatment: Antibiotics
- Teaching: Proper removal of tick and prevention of tick bites, rest and complete all antibiotics
- Agent: Rhabdoviridae (two types, dogs and wild life)
- Transmission: By infected saliva
- Symptoms: Headache, fever, malice, difficulty swallowing, if untreated leads to coma and death
- Treatment: Human rabies immune globulin for passive immunity; rabies vaccine, for active immunity
West Nile virus
- Agent: Arbovirus
- Transmission: Infected wild birds-mosquito carries virus from bird to human.
- Symptoms: Most people are A symptomatic; 20% have flue like symptoms; 1% have severe neurological symptoms
- Treatment:Standard precautions, teach prevention of mosquito bites, and avoid having standing water near home.
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