Ch14T1-8

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Author:
aphy101
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289973
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Ch14T1-8
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2014-11-24 16:47:01
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Chapter 14 Topics 1-8
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  1. ´╗┐The percentage of blood cells in a blood sample; (usually 45% red blood cells and 55% plasma)
    Hematocrit (HCT) or Packed Cell Volume (PCV)
  2. List the 3 major components of blood, including their relative amount.
    1) Plasma (55%) 2) Red Blood Cells (45%) 3) White Blood Cells and Platelets (<1%)
  3. The clear, liquid portion of blood that is a mixture of water, amino acids, proteins, carbs, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes.
    Plasma
  4. When blood components are separated, the white blood cells and platelets form a thin layer between the plasma and red blood cells, called what?
    Buffy Coat
  5. How is hematocrit determined?
    If a blood-filled capillary tube is centrifuged the solid red blood cells pack in the lower portion and the percentage of them (hematocrit) can be determined
  6. Describe the basic development of a red blood cell.
    Blood cells originate in red bone marrow from hemocytoblasts or hemopoietic stem cells, which give rise to erythroblasts, which give rise to erythrocytes
  7. This is an oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells, it makes up about 1/3 of a red blood cell.
    Hemoglobin
  8. Hemoglobin combined with oxygen.
    Oxyhemoglobin
  9. Hemoglobin that has released oxygen.
    Deoxyhemoglobin
  10. List the 3 primary dietary factors that affect red blood cell formation, and describe their function.
    1) Vitamin B12 (DNA synthesis) 2) Folic Acid (DNA synthesis) 3) Iron (hemoglobin synthesis)
  11. This dietary factor required for red blood cell formation is absorbed from the small intestine and requires intrinsic factor for absorption; its function is for DNA synthesis.
    Vitamin B12
  12. This dietary factor required for red blood cell formation is absorbed from the small intestine, and is used for DNA synthesis.
    Folic Acid
  13. This dietary factor required for red blood cell formation is absorbed from the small intestine, conserved during red blood cell destruction and made available for reuse; its function is for hemoglobin synthesis.
    Iron
  14. A reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood; either a deficiency of red blood cells or a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin they contain.
    Anemia
  15. This type of anemia damages bone marrow, and is caused by toxic chemicals and radiation.
    Aplastic Anemia
  16. This type of anemia destroys red blood cells, and is caused by toxic chemicals.
    Hemolytic Anemia
  17. This type of anemia causes hemoglobin deficiency, and is caused by a dietary lack of iron.
    Iron Deficiency Anemia
  18. This type of anemia causes an excess of large, fragile cells, and is caused by an inability to absorb vitamin B12.
    Pernicious Anemia
  19. This type of anemia causes abnormally shaped red blood cells, and is caused by a defective gene.
    Sickle Cell Disease
  20. This type of anemia causes hemoglobin deficiency and short-lived red blood cells, and is caused by a defective gene.
    Thalassemia
  21. A greenish pigment derived from decomposed heme that eventually converts to bilirubin and is excreted in bile as bile pigments.
    Biliverdin
  22. An orange pigment converted from biliverdin that is excreted in bile as bile pigments.
    Bilirubin
  23. List the first 4 major events in red blood cell destruction.
    1) Squeezing through capillaries damages RBCs 2) Macrophages in the spleen and liver phagocytize damage RBCs 3) Hemoglobin from RBCs is decomposed into heme and globin 4) Heme is decomposed into iron and biliverdin
  24. List the last 4 major events in red blood cell destruction.
    5) Iron is made available for reuse in the synthesis of new hemoglobin or is stored in the liver as ferritin 6) Some biliverdin is converted into bilirubin 7) Biliverdin and Bilirubin are excreted in bile as bile pigments 8) The globin is broken down into amino acids metabolized by macrophages or released into the plasma
  25. Also known as white blood cells, these protect against disease.
    Leukocytes
  26. List and describe the 2 hormones that stimulate growth and reproduction of leukocytes.
    1) Interleukins 2) Colony-Stimulating Factors (CSFs)
  27. List the 5 types of white blood cells found in blood.
    1) Neutrophils 2) Eosinophils 3) Basophils 4) Monocytes 5) Lymphocytes
  28. Leukocytes with cytoplasmic granules present.
    Granulocytes
  29. What are the 3 types of granulocytes?
    1) Neutrophils 2) Eosinophils 3) Basophils
  30. This type of granulocyte has a nucleus with 2 to 5 lobes; cytoplasmic granules stain light purple in combined acid and base stains.
    Neutrophils
  31. This type of granulocyte has a bilobed nucleus; cytoplasmic granules stain red in acid stain.
    Eosinophil
  32. This type of granulocyte has a lobed nucleus; cytoplasmic granules stain blue in basic stain.
    Basophil
  33. Leukocytes without cytoplasmic granules.
    Agranulocytes
  34. What are the 2 types of agranulocytes?
    1) Monocytes 2) Lymphocytes
  35. This type of agranulocyte is 2 to 3 times larger than a red blood cell; nuclear shape varies from spherical to lobed.
    Monocyte
  36. This type of agranulocyte is the smallest of the white blood cells; its nucleus nearly fills cell.
    Lymphocyte

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