CDT cards

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kjp19
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289979
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CDT cards
Updated:
2014-11-24 20:47:29
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cardiology
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cardiology,Chapter 1
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cardiology
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  1. The five characteristics of angina pectoris are ______.
    -Anginal pain in usually Substernal but may radiate.

    –The pain is deep, visceral, and intense; it may be described as pressure like sensation or a tightness.

    •  –The duration of pain is minutes, not seconds.
    • The pain has to be precipitated by exercise or emotional stress.

    –The pain is relieved by resting or taking sublingual nitroglycerin
  2. Syncope or Precinct should make you think a reduction in blood flow to ______.  And can be due to______
    The brain

    Primary central nervous system disease, metabolic conditions, dehydration, or inner ear problems. A history of palpitations preceding the event is significantPrimary central nervous system disease, metabolic conditions, dehydration, or inner ear problems. A history of palpitations preceding the event is significant
  3. TIA suggest emboli from the______ or ______.
    Suggest emboli from the heart or great vessels. Rarely from venous circulation through in intracardiac shunt.
  4. Fluid retention is not specific for heart disease but may be due to a reduced ______.
    Cardiac function. Decreased appetite, diarrhea, jaundice, nausea and vomiting can also occur from gut and hepatic dysfunction due to fluid engorgement.
  5. A cardiac cough is usually ______or ______.
    Dry or nonproductive
  6. Pulmonary hypertension from any cause can results in ______.( symptom)
    Cough
  7. When doing orthostatic blood pressure monitoring the patient should be standing for at least ______ seconds.
    90 seconds
  8. When should you Perform orthostatic blood pressure monitoring in patients complaining of______ 3x.
    Patients complaining of transient central nervous system symptoms. Weakness. Or unstable.
  9. In general pulse pressure is a crude measurement of left ventricular stroke volume. A white pulse pressure suggest______ stroke volume while in narrow pressure indicates a wide.  ______
    Widen pulse pressure suggest that the stroke volume is large.Narrow pulse pressure suggests that the stroke volume is small.
  10. When examining the peripheral pulses you're really conducting three examinations. Name the three.
    Rate and rhythm, cardiac activity, assessment of the adequacy of the arterial conduit being examined.
  11. The rapid pulse suggests increased ______ levels which may be due to cardiac disease, such as heart failure. A slow pulse represents excess______ tone, which may be due to disease or athletic training.
    • Catecholamine
    • vagal tone
  12. The strength of a pulses grade on scale from 1 to 4 where ______ is a normal pulse amplitude
    two
  13. The palpable vibration is ______ in cardiology
    A thrill
  14. A bifid pulse can be a sign of what four things
    Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, severe aortic regurgitation, moderate severe aortic stenosis or regurgitation.
  15. Pulsus alternans is a sign of severe______.
    Severe heart failure. Alternate strong and weak pulses
  16. bruits are sought with the ______ stethoscope. Carotids, double aorta femoral.
    bell
  17. Heart failure is commonly called is a______ pleural effusion.
    Right. Heart failure can cause a bilateral pleural effusion. But is least likely to cause isolated left pleural effusion.
  18. When right heart failure develops or venous return is restricted from entering the heart,______ pressure in the abdomen increases leading to______ and eventually ascites.
    venous Hepatosplenomegaly
  19. The first heart sound is coincident with ______ and ______ valve closure.
    Mitral tricuspid
  20. Second heart sound is coincident with closure of the ______ and ______.
    Aortic and Pulmonary
  21. A third heart sound occurs during early______ filling of the______. It can be produced by any condition that causes ______ or ______
    Early rapid filling of the left ventricle. Left ventricular volume overload or dilatation
  22. A third heart sound can be heard and what two conditions
    Normal Pregnancy or CHF
  23. A fourth heart sound is due to vigorous______ contraction into a stiffened______ ventricle.
    Vigorous left atrial contraction into a stiffened left ventricle.
  24. A fourth heart sound can be a sign of ventricular hypertrophy of any cause or in diseases that reduce compliance of the left ventricle such as a ______.
    Myocardial infarction
  25. A mid-systolic click is often due to ______
    Mitral valve prolapse and is caused by sudden tensing in mid-systole of the redundant prolapsing segment of the mitral leaflet.
  26. ______ valve leaflet, as in mitral stenosis will calls a loud opening ______and early diastole.
    Atrioventricular valve leaflet

    snap
  27. A grade for murmur is associated with______.
    Palpable thrill
  28. Grade 5 murmur can be heard with the ______ of the stethoscope
    Edge
  29. Grade 6 murmur can be heard______
    Without a stethoscope
  30. Murmurs in the ______ range are almost always due to pathologic conditions
    Four – six
  31. The most common systolic murmur Is the ______
    Crescendo/decrescendo
  32. Christian the decrescendo murmurs can represent what Three conditions
    Vigorous flow any normal heart or to affections inflow, aortic stenosis, pulmonary stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  33. The ninth flow murmurs can be heard in ______ percent of children
    80%. This declines with age.
  34. holoystolic or pansystolic murmurs are always associated with______.
    Pathology
  35. Diastolic murmurs are always ______.
    Abnormal
  36. The most frequently heard diastolic murmur is the high-frequency Decrescendo early diastolic murmur of ______.
    Aortic regurgitation. This is usually heard best at the upper left sternal border or in the aortic area and may radiate to the left sternal border in the apex.
  37. A continuous murmur implies a connection between ______and ______
    High and low pressure chamber throughout the cardiac cycles such as occurs with a fistula between aorta and pulmonary artery. If the connection is a patent ductus arteriosus, the murmur as best heard under the left clavicle is machinelike in sound.
  38. Flow murmur
    inspiration
    stand
    squat
    Valsalva
    handgrip
    post PVC
    • -inspiration, Nothing or increase
    • -stand, Decrease
    • -squat,Increase
    • -Valsalva, Decrease
    • -handgrip, Decrease
    • -post PVC, Increase
  39. Tricuspid regurgitation
    -inspiration
    -stand
    -squat
    -Valsalva
    -handgrip
    -post PVC
    • -inspiration, Increase
    • -stand
    • -squat
    • -Valsalva, Decrease
    • -handgrip
    • -post PVC
  40. Aortic stenosis
    -inspiration
    -stand
    -squat
    -Valsalva
    -handgrip
    -post PVC
    • -inspiration
    • -stand
    • -squat
    • -Valsalva, Decrease
    • -handgrip
    • -post PVC, Increase
  41. Mitral regurgitation, ventricular septal defect
    -inspiration
    -stand
    -squat
    -Valsalva
    -handgrip
    -post PVC
    • -inspiration
    • -stand
    • -squat
    • -Valsalva, Decrease
    • -handgrip, Increase
    • -post PVC
  42. Mitral valve prolapse
    -inspiration
    -stand
    -squat
    -Valsalva
    -handgrip
    -post PVC
    • -inspiration
    • -stand, Increase
    • -squat, Decrease
    • -Valsalva, Increase
    • -handgrip, Increase
    • -post PVC
  43. HOCM-inspiration
    -stand
    -squat
    -Valsalva
    -handgrip
    -post PVC
    • -inspiration
    • -stand, Increase
    • -squat, Decrease
    • -Valsalva, Increase
    • -handgrip, Decrease
    • -post PVC, Increase
  44. Inspiration is associated with reductions in the intrathoracic pressure that increase venous return from the abdomen in the head leading to increase flow through the ______ heart chambers.
    Right
  45. If the patient is in ______position venous return is highest.
    Supine
  46. In physically capable individuals, a rapid squat from the standing position is often diagnostically valuable because it suddenly increases venous return and left ventricular volume and accenuates flow murmurs but the diminishes the murmur of ____.
    hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.
  47. Valsalva maneuver increases ______ pressure and Markedly reducing venous return to the heart
    Intrathoracic
  48. The murmur of ______may become louder because of the diminished left ventricular volume with the Valsalva maneuver.
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  49. The murmur associated with mitral regurgitation from mitral valve prolapse may become ______ and ______ because of the early occurrence of prolapse during systole during the Valsalva maneuver
    Longer and louder
  50. When asking the patient to perform the Valsalva maneuver issue not the done longer than ______seconds
    10 seconds
  51. Isometric handgrip exercises have been used to increase ______and ______ventricular pressure.
    Increase arterial and left ventricular pressure.
  52. Isometric handgrip exercises increase for gradient for ______,______, and ______ regurgitation.
    Mitral regurgitation, ventricular septal defect, and aortic regurgitation

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