Clin Path- Cytology.txt

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Mawad
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289983
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Clin Path- Cytology.txt
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2014-11-24 20:00:32
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clin path cytology
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vetmed
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  1. 6 advantages of cytology.
    provides useful clinical information, inexpensive, non-invasive, rapid interpretations, and samples can be collected from a variety of sites and many different tissues
  2. 3 limitations to cytology.
    no tissue architecture so surgical margins and vascular invasion cannot be evaluated, attention to detail in sampling and preparation is key, some tissues may not exfoliate readily
  3. 4 useful methods of sample collection for cytology.
    fine needle aspirate (FNA), ultrasound to guide FNA, impression smears, gentle tissue scraping
  4. Make sure to always sample ___________ within a lesion when evaluating with cytology.
    several sites (to get a representative sample)
  5. What are two methods of preparing the sample for cytology evaluation?
    spreading the sample b/w two slides (squash preparation), push technique (blood smear preparation technique)
  6. For fluid samples being sent to a reference laboratory, make _____________ and let them __________; these will be submitted with...
    one or two direct smears; air dry; the fluid
  7. Prepare slides away from ________ to avoid...
    formalin; fixation and staining artifacts
  8. If slides are to be sent to a reference laboratory, send ________, __________ slides; always remember to include the... (4)
    air-dried; unstained; signalment, history, sites from which sample was collected, and preliminary differentials
  9. Inflammation is characterized by a _____________ of cells, including... (7); the type of inflammation is indicated by...
    mixed population; neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, mast cells, monocytes, and macrophages; the predominant inflammatory cell type
  10. 5 degenerative changes in neutrophils.
    nuclear pyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, cytoplasmic basophilia, and vacuolization
  11. What are degenerative neutrophils indicative of?
    bacteria or other etiologic agents, such as fungi
  12. Hyperplastic cells resemble normal cells, but...
    they appear more immature
  13. Hyperplastic cells have a _________ N:C ratio; neoplastic cells have a __________ N:C ratio.
    constant; variable
  14. Neoplasia is characterized by the presence of cells that are...
    not normally expected from the site of collection
  15. Neoplastic criteria are features of ______________.
    rapid multiplication
  16. Discrete cell tumors, or round cell tumors, are _____________.
    solid tissue masses
  17. Mast Cell Tumors
    Type-
    Cell shape-
    Nucleus-
    Granules?-
    Other defining characteristics-
    • Type- Round cell tumor
    • Cell shape- round to oval
    • Nucleus- Central, aggregated chromatin
    • Granules?- cytoplasmic
    • Other defining characteristics- may be accompanied by eosinophils
  18. Lymphoma
    Type-
    Cell shape-
    Nucleus-
    Granules?-
    • Type- Round cell tumor
    • Cell shape- round cells with high N:C ratio
    • Nucleus- prominent nucleoli
    • Granules?- NONE
  19. Histiocytoma
    Type-
    Cell shape-
    Nucleus-
    Granules?-
    Other defining characteristics-
    • Type- Round cell tumor
    • Cell shape- round, oval, or irregularly shaped
    • Nucleus- Eccentric
    • Granules?- NONE
    • Other defining characteristics- spontaneously regress when infiltrated by lymphocytes- may not need treatment
  20. Localized soft tissue mesenchymal neoplasm that usually presents as a large, locally-invasive subcutaneous mass common in Rottweilers.
    Histiocytic sarcoma (malignant)
  21. Histiocytic sarcoma
    Type-
    Cell shape-
    Nucleus-
    Granules?-
    Other defining characteristics-
    • Type- round cell tumor
    • Cell shape- large, pleomorphic mononuclear cells w/ marked anisocytosis
    • Nucleus- anisokaryosis, prominent nucleoli
    • Granules?- none
    • Other defining characteristics- vacuolated cytoplasm
  22. Extramedullary plasmacytoma
    Type-
    Cell shape-
    Nucleus-
    Granules?-
    Other defining characteristics-
    • Type- round cell tumor
    • Cell shape- round to oval
    • Nucleus- eccentric; binucleated is common
    • Granules?- none
    • Other defining characteristics- perinuclear clear zone
  23. If a malignant neoplasm is of epithelial origin, it is known as a ________.
    carcinoma
  24. If a malignant neoplasm is of mesenchymal origin, it is known as a ___________.
    sarcoma
  25. Epithelial neoplasms exfoliate ________, are arranged as __________, are shaped _____________, and have ___________ cytoplasmic borders.
    easily; clusters; round or polygonal; well-defined
  26. Mesenchymal neoplasms exfoliate ________, are arranged as __________, are shaped _____________, and have ___________ cytoplasmic borders.
    poorly; single cells; spindle or irrgularly; poorly defined
  27. In normal lymph nodes, the majority of cells are ___________ with a much smaller population of __________; other cell types may be present in small numbers.
    small lymphocytes; medium and large lymphocytes
  28. Intermediate (medium) and large lymphocytes are ________ or _________ lymphocytes, similar in size or larger than __________.
    immature; activated; neutrophils
  29. Hyperplastic lymph nodes have the following cells types present in significant numbers (from most to least)...
    small lymphocytes, medium and large lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages
  30. Hyperplastic lymph nodes are ___________ secondary to a _________________________; there is a _________ population of lymphcytes, but _______ predominate.
    enlarged; localized or systemic antigenic stimulation; heterogenous; small lymphocytes
  31. Lymphadenitis is characterized by __________________.
    accumulation of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages)
  32. In ___________ lymphadenitis, >5% of the cells are neutrophils, which sometimes appear degenerate.
    suppurative (neutrophilic)
  33. Most common causes of suppurative lymphadenitis.
    bacterial agents
  34. Caseous lymphadenitis is a type of _____________ lymphadenitis.
    suppurative
  35. Streptococcus equi can cause strangles in horses, which is a __________ lymphadenitis and potential rupture of ___________.
    suppurative; parotid and mandibular lymph nodes
  36. In ____________ lymphadenitis, macrophages are the predominant cells.
    granulomatous
  37. In __________ lymphadenitis, macrophages are neutrophils are the predominant cells.
    pyogranulomatous
  38. Granulomatous and pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis often are associated with _______ or ____________.
    fungal or mycobacterial infections
  39. Blastomycosis is a caused of ___________ lymphadenitis with ________.
    pyogranulomatous; fungal yeasts (big, blue, broad-based bud= blasto)
  40. Histoplasmosis is a _______ infection of __________ that causes __________ and ____________ inflammation.
    fungal; macrophages; pyogranulomatous; granulomatous
  41. Transudate is a ____________ effusion with a __________ cellular response.
    non-inflammatory; minimal
  42. 5 common causes of transudate effusions.
    congestive heart failure, liver failure, protein-losing enteropathy, glomerular nephropathy, hypoalbuminemia
  43. Modified transudate is a __________ effusion that has a __________ plasma protein count and nucleated cell count.
    non-specific; variable
  44. Transudate
    total protein-
    cell count-
    SG-
    • total protein- <2.5 g/dL
    • cell count- <1000 cells/μL
    • SG- <1.018
  45. Modified transudate
    total protein-
    nucleated cell count-
    SG-
    • total protein- 2.5-7.5 g/dL
    • nucleated cell count- 1000-7000 cells/μL
    • SG- 1.08-1.025
  46. Exudate is a(n) _________ effusion caused by ________________ from ___________.
    inflammatory; inflammatory mediator release; tissue insult
  47. Exudate
    total protein-
    nucleated cell count-
    SG-
    • total protein- >3.0 g/dL
    • nucleated cell count- >7000 cells/ μL
    • SG- >1.025
  48. Color of effusions can indicate origin/ cellular contents:
    Colorless-
    Yellow-
    Red,orange-
    Green-
    Brown,black-
    White, tan-
    White-
    • Colorless- transudate, normal fluid
    • Yellow- icterus
    • Red,orange- bllood
    • Green- bile
    • Brown,black- melanin
    • White, tan- inflammatory or neoplastic cells
    • White- lipid from chylomicrons or cell membranes
  49. Transudate is usually _________, and its predominant cell type is ________.
    clear, colorless; mononuclear cells
  50. Modified transudate is usually ___________, and its modified cell type is _________.
    light yellow to orange, clear to cloudy; large mononuclear cells...variable
  51. Exudate is usually __________, and it prominent cell type is ________.
    yellow-orange to tan to white, cloudy; neutrophils +/- bacteria, fungi

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