AP Euro Chapters 17-20

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  1. What was significant about the St. Basils Cathedral?
    ordered by Ivan the Terrible, located in Moscow also had Byzantine influenced architecture
  2. What was Stenka Rasin?
    The cossack uprising against the Russian nobility, they ultimately lost
  3. What was Catherine's empire and lasting contribution?
    Russia, annexed parts of Poland
  4. Who were the cossacks?
    Refugees banded together in settlements for protection, helped the tsar in return for autonomy
  5. What was Hereditary Subjugation?
    Prussian serfs were bound to the land generationally
  6. What was the Robot?
    Austrian law forcing serfs into 3 days a week labor
  7. Who were the Junkers?
    An aristocratic family in Prussia
  8. Who was Joseph II?
    The first real enlightened monarch, he allowed toleration of jews and other religions and abolished serfdom
  9. What did Charles VI set up?
    The pragmatic sanction
  10. What did the pragmatic sanction do?
    Declared that all Hapsburg territories must stay together, attempted to protect Maria. Broken by Prussia.
  11. Who were the ruling families of each nation?
    • Prussia - Holenherzons
    • Austria - 
    • Russia - Romanovs
  12. What did Peter do?
    Built St. Petersburg, forced aristocracy to change.
  13. Who were the boyars?
    Russian aristocracy
  14. What was the Ptolemaic/Aristotelian model?
    Geocentric - Earth is the center
  15. Who was Copernicus?
    Used naked eye, believed in Heliocentric model, but had no solid evidence so he was ignored
  16. Who was Tycho Brahe?
    believed in geocentric model and thought that a comet and star he saw was proof of this. He kept detailed data of his observations which were inherited by Kepler.
  17. Who was Kepler?
    Believed that planets followed elliptical orbits and used mathematical laws to prove it.
  18. Who was Galileo Galilei?
    Using his telescope, he showed that the universe was made of matter
  19. Who said “the language of science is mathematics?”
  20. Who was Montaigne?
    A skeptical essayist
  21. Who was Francis Bacon?
    believed in “washing the mind clear of opinions,” inductive reasoning
  22. Who was Rene Descartes?
    His view of the world was broken down into mind and matter (Cartesian dualism). Used deductive reasoning.
  23. What is inductive reasoning?
    Taking evidence to form a conclusion, also called empiricism. Associated with Bacon.
  24. What is deductive reasoning?
    Taking a theory or hypothesis and finding the evidence to prove it. Associated with Descartes.
  25. What were salons?
    Artists and thinkers would meet. Often run by women.
  26. Who was John Locke?
    The beginning of the enlightenment. He believed that everyone is born as a "tabula rosa" - a blank slate. He supported limiting absolutism through checks and balances and that government should be "by the consent of the governed"
  27. Who was Edmund Halley?
    Observed a comet and predicted its next appearance.
  28. Who was Edward Jenner?
    Invented the smallpox vaccination
  29. Who was Newton?
    Developed the idea of natural law, which governed the heavenly bodies. he provided a mathematical explanation of gravity and physics.
  30. Who believed in the "great watchmaker?"
    Diests - god created the world but wasn't involved in human daily life
  31. Who was Adam Smith?
    Believed in Capitalism and free trade.
  32. Who were "lunatics?"
    People believed to have become mentally ill from the lunar phases
  33. Who was Madame Chatelet?
    Spread Newton's ideas in France by translating his work
  34. Who said "I think therefore I am?"
  35. Who was Voltaire? What was his other name?
    Francois Marie Arouet; was against the corrupt church but supported religion, admired enlightened rulers, admired english freedoms
  36. Who was Rosseau?
    Saw government as an agreement between people (Social Contract). Didn't care how government worked as long as it helped the people.
  37. Who was Fontanelle?
    Wrote Conservation on the Plurality of Worlds
  38. Who was Olaudah Equiano?
    An abolitionist slave who wrote about his accounts
  39. What was the French Encyclopedia?
    A collection of all the world's knowledge. It was banned in France and by the Pope.
  40. Who published the French Encyclopedia?
    Denis Diderot and Jean d'Alembert.
  41. Who was Charles Townshend?
    Passed Townshend acts on America, English gov't member
  42. Who was Louis XIV?
    French Absolute Monarch, was the ideal for all Eastern Absolute Monarchs that wanted to match his greatness and Versailles (his palace)
  43. What was Just Price?
    set standards of fairness in transactions
  44. Who was Moses Mendelssohn?
    A Jewish enlightened writer
  45. Who was Thomas Hobbes?
    Supported Absolutism, believed the people needed it
  46. Who was Jethro Tull?
    Helped agriculture industry, suggested drilling holes for seeds and suggested using horses instead of oxen
  47. Who was Montesquieu? What was his other name?
    Charles Louis de Secondat;
  48. Who was David Hume?
    an empiricist who believed that desire governed human behavior
  49. Who was Paul D'Holbach?
    A french atheist who wrote against religion, human beings were machines completely determined by outside forces
  50. What was the Consolidation of Prussia?
    Fredrick William I (The Sergeant King) turned Prussia into a militaristic state
  51. Who said "I think, therefore I am"
  52. Who said "I disagree with every word you say, but I will defend your right to say it"
  53. Who was Thomas Malthus?
    An economic thinker who wrote about population growth, thought that food would always be less than population
  54. Who was David Ricardo?
    An economic thinker who wrote about wages
  55. What were the Persian Letters?
    Montesquieu first publication
  56. What were famine foods?
    What peasants ate when they were starving - bark, grass, plants
  57. What were apothecaries?
    Medicine and drug stores
  58. Who wrote "On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies?"
  59. Who were the bourbons?
    French royal house including Henry Navarre
  60. Who were the Creoles?
    Spanish-American upper class
  61. What was the window to the west?
    St.Petersburg created by Peter the great was considered to be the “window to the west” because it was very new and modern. He brought in western and baroque ideas to create this city.
  62. What was Estate Agriculture?
    Lords had powerful economic incentives to increase the production of their estates because of gold and silver flow from the new world. They started taking more land from the peasants and had very profitable surpluses from their land.
  63. What was Russian serfdom like?
    They lost the right to move freely across land
  64. What was the putting-out system?
    Another name for the cottage industry. Rural people worked early pre-industrial labor jobs such as sewing, spinning weaving, etc.
  65. What is enclosure?
    The common land in rural areas was taken by major landowners, forcing peasants to work as laborers, move to the city, or work in cottage industry
  66. Who was Madame Coudray?
    A midwife who taught others. She knew more about it than the doctors of the time.
  67. Who was Emanuel Kant?
    The first to use the term "Enlightenment"
  68. What were the revivals of Protestantism?
    • England - Methodism, John Wesley
    • Germany - Pietism, Jakob Philip Spener
  69. What was "Candide?"
    A satirical play by Voltaire
  70. Who said "Crush the infamous thing!"
  71. Who said "Men are born free, yet everywhere they are in chains"
  72. What was the significance of the bubonic plague?
    It lessened the population prior to this time, a vaccine against it had been developed allowing the population to start to recover
  73. What happened to illegitimacy?
    It increased dramatically
  74. What happened to abortion?
    It was illegal, overlaying became more common.
  75. What was a weakness of the cottage industry?
    Imbalance of spinning and weaving
  76. Who wrote Principia Mathematica?
  77. What was Holy Monday?
    The serfs day off
Card Set:
AP Euro Chapters 17-20
2014-11-25 01:12:22
AP Euro Chapters 17 20

AP Euro Chapters 17-20
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