Clin Path- Muscle Evaluation .txt

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Clin Path- Muscle Evaluation .txt
2014-11-24 20:46:43
clin path muscle

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  1. What type of collection tube is used for biochemical profiles?
    Clot/serum- red top tube- no anticoagulant
  2. The measurement of enzymes in serum is based on a measure of their ________ in serum.
  3. The activity of serum enzymes is based on... (4)
    presence and concentration in tissue, mechanism of release (via damage or induced), where enzyme goes after release, enzyme half-life
  4. A ______________ elevation in enzyme activity is typically considered the threshold for clinical relevance for leakage enzymes.
    3-fold or greater
  5. A significant increase in an in an analyte with a range of 10-120 would be calculated by...
    120 + 10 = 130 / 2 = 65 x 3 = 195
  6. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an indicator of __________ or __________ damage; it is released via ________.
    muscle or hepatocellular; leakage
  7. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an indicator of ___________; it is released by...
    cholestasis; cholestasis inducing hepatocytes to increase production of ALP
  8. The detection of myofiber damage is limited to the detection of... (7)
    trauma (including IM injections), inflammation, metabolic disorders, nutritional disease, infiltrating neoplasia, ischemia, necrosis
  9. ________ is the most muscle specific assay.
    creatine kinase (CK)
  10. CK is located in ________ and its function is to...
    muscle; transfer phosphate to ADP to form ATP
  11. Creatine kinases 1-4 isoforms are found where in the body, respectively?
    • 1- brain
    • 2- cardiac muscle
    • 3- skeletal and cardiac muscle
    • 4- mitochondria of many tissues
  12. The plasma half-life of CK is ______, therefore...
    short; it will decrease quickly if muscle damage is not ongoing
  13. Mild increases of CK occur with... (5)
    restraint, activity, IM injections, recumbency, biopsy
  14. Moderate increases of CK occur with... (3)
    trauma, convulsions, some neuropathies/myopathies
  15. Marked increases in CK occur with... (2)
    polymyositis, exertional rhabdomyolysis
  16. _______ may cause false elevation of CK.
  17. Other than CK, what other enzymes are used to evaluate muscle?
    ASP, ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
  18. Hyperkalemia may or may not occur with...
    (serum potassium elevation) significant muscle damage
  19. Myoglobin is rapidly released to the blood after ___________; it peaks earlier than ________, but it is cleared more quickly.
    muscle damage; CK
  20. How do you differentiate hemoglobinuria from myoglobinuria?
    ammonium sulfate precipitates hemoglobin, but NOT myoglobin
  21. Lactic acid is used to confirm a diagnosis of ____________.
    metabolic myopathies