What was significant about the St. Basils Cathedral?
ordered by Ivan the Terrible, located in Moscow also had Byzantine influenced architecture
What was Stenka Rasin?
The cossack uprising against the Russian nobility, they ultimately lost
What was Catherine's empire and lasting contribution?
Russia, annexed parts of Poland
Who were the cossacks?
Refugees banded together in settlements for protection, helped the tsar in return for autonomy
What was Hereditary Subjugation?
Prussian serfs were bound to the land generationally
What was the Robot?
Austrian law forcing serfs into 3 days a week labor
Who were the Junkers?
An aristocratic family in Prussia
Who was Joseph II?
The first real enlightened monarch, he allowed toleration of jews and other religions and abolished serfdom
What did Charles VI set up?
The pragmatic sanction
What did the pragmatic sanction do?
Declared that all Hapsburg territories must stay together, attempted to protect Maria. Broken by Prussia.
Who were the ruling families of each nation?
Prussia - Holenherzons
Russia - Romanovs
What did Peter do?
Built St. Petersburg, forced aristocracy to change.
Who were the boyars?
What was the Ptolemaic/Aristotelian model?
Geocentric - Earth is the center
Who was Copernicus?
Used naked eye, believed in Heliocentric model, but had no solid evidence so he was ignored
Who was Tycho Brahe?
believed in geocentric model and thought that a comet and star he saw was proof of this. He kept detailed data of his observations which were inherited by Kepler.
Who was Kepler?
Believed that planets followed elliptical orbits and used mathematical laws to prove it.
Who was Galileo Galilei?
Using his telescope, he showed that the universe was made of matter
Who said “the language of science is mathematics?”
Who was Montaigne?
A skeptical essayist
Who was Francis Bacon?
believed in “washing the mind clear of opinions,” inductive reasoning
Who was Rene Descartes?
His view of the world was broken down into mind and matter (Cartesian dualism). Used deductive reasoning.
What is inductive reasoning?
Taking evidence to form a conclusion, also called empiricism. Associated with Bacon.
What is deductive reasoning?
Taking a theory or hypothesis and finding the evidence to prove it. Associated with Descartes.
What were salons?
Artists and thinkers would meet. Often run by women.
Who was John Locke?
The beginning of the enlightenment. He believed that everyone is born as a "tabula rosa" - a blank slate. He supported limiting absolutism through checks and balances and that government should be "by the consent of the governed"
Who was Edmund Halley?
Observed a comet and predicted its next appearance.
Who was Edward Jenner?
Invented the smallpox vaccination
Who was Newton?
Developed the idea of natural law, which governed the heavenly bodies. he provided a mathematical explanation of gravity and physics.
Who believed in the "great watchmaker?"
Diests - god created the world but wasn't involved in human daily life
Who was Adam Smith?
Believed in Capitalism and free trade.
Who were "lunatics?"
People believed to have become mentally ill from the lunar phases
Who was Madame Chatelet?
Spread Newton's ideas in France by translating his work
Who said "I think therefore I am?"
Who was Voltaire? What was his other name?
Francois Marie Arouet; was against the corrupt church but supported religion, admired enlightened rulers, admired english freedoms
Who was Rosseau?
Saw government as an agreement between people (Social Contract). Didn't care how government worked as long as it helped the people.
Who was Fontanelle?
Wrote Conservation on the Plurality of Worlds
Who was Olaudah Equiano?
An abolitionist slave who wrote about his accounts
What was the French Encyclopedia?
A collection of all the world's knowledge. It was banned in France and by the Pope.
Who published the French Encyclopedia?
Denis Diderot and Jean d'Alembert.
Who was Charles Townshend?
Passed Townshend acts on America, English gov't member
Who was Louis XIV?
French Absolute Monarch, was the ideal for all Eastern Absolute Monarchs that wanted to match his greatness and Versailles (his palace)
What was Just Price?
set standards of fairness in transactions
Who was Moses Mendelssohn?
A Jewish enlightened writer
Who was Thomas Hobbes?
Supported Absolutism, believed the people needed it
Who was Jethro Tull?
Helped agriculture industry, suggested drilling holes for seeds and suggested using horses instead of oxen
Who was Montesquieu? What was his other name?
Charles Louis de Secondat;
Who was David Hume?
an empiricist who believed that desire governed human behavior
Who was Paul D'Holbach?
A french atheist who wrote against religion, human beings were machines completely determined by outside forces
What was the Consolidation of Prussia?
Fredrick William I (The Sergeant King) turned Prussia into a militaristic state
Who said "I think, therefore I am"
Who said "I disagree with every word you say, but I will defend your right to say it"
Who was Thomas Malthus?
An economic thinker who wrote about population growth, thought that food would always be less than population
Who was David Ricardo?
An economic thinker who wrote about wages
What were the Persian Letters?
Montesquieu first publication
What were famine foods?
What peasants ate when they were starving - bark, grass, plants
What were apothecaries?
Medicine and drug stores
Who wrote "On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies?"
Who were the bourbons?
French royal house including Henry Navarre
Who were the Creoles?
Spanish-American upper class
What was the window to the west?
St.Petersburg created by Peter the great was considered to be the “window to the west” because it was very new and modern. He brought in western and baroque ideas to create this city.
What was Estate Agriculture?
Lords had powerful economic incentives to increase the production of their estates because of gold and silver flow from the new world. They started taking more land from the peasants and had very profitable surpluses from their land.
What was Russian serfdom like?
They lost the right to move freely across land
What was the putting-out system?
Another name for the cottage industry. Rural people worked early pre-industrial labor jobs such as sewing, spinning weaving, etc.
What is enclosure?
The common land in rural areas was taken by major landowners, forcing peasants to work as laborers, move to the city, or work in cottage industry
Who was Madame Coudray?
A midwife who taught others. She knew more about it than the doctors of the time.
Who was Emanuel Kant?
The first to use the term "Enlightenment"
What were the revivals of Protestantism?
England - Methodism, John Wesley
Germany - Pietism, Jakob Philip Spener
What was "Candide?"
A satirical play by Voltaire
Who said "Crush the infamous thing!"
Who said "Men are born free, yet everywhere they are in chains"
What was the significance of the bubonic plague?
It lessened the population prior to this time, a vaccine against it had been developed allowing the population to start to recover
What happened to illegitimacy?
It increased dramatically
What happened to abortion?
It was illegal, overlaying became more common.
What was a weakness of the cottage industry?
Imbalance of spinning and weaving
Who wrote Principia Mathematica?
What was Holy Monday?
The serfs day off
Who was Thomas Paine?
American writer of "Common Sense" against British Gov't