Solubility Chem 1C

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  1. Immiscible
    Do not mix
  2. Solution
    A mixture consisting of a solute and a solvent
  3. Solute
    Substance being dissolved
  4. Solvent
    Medium in which the solute is dissolved
  5. Solubility
    The amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a particular temperature
  6. Molality
    Moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
  7. Mass percent
    Grams of solute per grams of solution
  8. Mole Fraction
    moles of solute per moles of solution
  9. Ion-Dipole interaction
    • -NaCl breaks into ions when dissolved in water
    • -Positive and negative ions are stabilized by neighboring water molecules
  10. external pressure affects
    gas solubility
  11. Henry's Law formula
    • P=kHX
    • for solutes

    Pressure of gaseous solute=constant x mole fraction of gas in solution
  12. Solids: Solubility v. temperature
    If you increase temperature, you increase solubility
  13. Gases: Temperature v. solubility
    If you increase temperature, you decrease solubility
  14. Nonvolatile solution does what to vapor pressure
    Lowers it
  15. Nonvolatile
    Low vapor pressure at room temperature
  16. Raoult's Law

    vapor pressure of solution= mole fraction of solvent x vapor pressure pure solvent
  17. Negative Deviation
    P solution lower than expected
  18. Positive Deviation
    P solution higher than expected
  19. Boiling point elevation
    -adding a nonvolatile solute lowers vapor pressure of a solution
  20. Vapor pressure v boiling point
    Lower vapor pressure=higher boiling point
  21. Freezing in a solution
    Pure solvent freezes out of the solution
  22. Freezing point
    Vapor pressure of solution=vapor pressure of solid
  23. Vapor pressure of solution vs. vapor pressure of ice at 0oC when nonvolatile solute is added
    • vapor pressure of solution is lower than the vapor pressure of ice
    • -does not freeze at 0oC
  24. Vapor pressure v. freezing point
    • The higher the vapor pressure, the higher the freezing point
    • -Lower vapor pressure shifts position of triple point
  25. Colligative Properties
    Depends on the total amount of solute
  26. Freezing point depression formula
  27. Boiling point elevation formula
  28. Osmosis
    -Semi-permeable membrane allows solvent, but not solute particles to pass through
  29. What happens during osmosis?
    • -System tries to equilibrate concentrations
    • -Solvent moves across membrane to dilute the solution
    • -Increase solution height is related to osmotic pressure (pi)
  30. Osmotic Pressure
    Additional pressure needed to keep solution and pure solvent levels equal that prevents osmosis from happening
  31. Osmotic pressure formula
  32. Noble gas configuration
    Go to noble gas in row above, move across shells until you reach desired atom
  33. For elements with 4 or 9 d-electrons
    Remove an electron from the s-orbital, add it to the d-orbital
  34. When forming metal ions, remove __ first
    S electrons

    • Fe0=[Ar]4s23d6
    • Fe2+[Ar]3d6
Card Set:
Solubility Chem 1C
2014-11-25 04:47:27
Chem 1C

Solubility Chem 1C
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