Coordination Compounds Chem 1C

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Trekofstarsx
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289997
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Coordination Compounds Chem 1C
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2014-11-25 00:33:16
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Chem 1C
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Coordination Compounds Chem 1C
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  1. Complex ion
    Transition metal bound to multiple ligands that carries a charge
  2. Ligands
    Molecules or ions that are attached to a transition metal (NH3)
  3. Counter Ions
    Ions that balance charge. Not part of the complex ion
  4. Coordination Number (CN)
    • -Number of bonds to the transition metal
    • -for polydentate ligands, each "tooth" counts for one
  5. CN=2
    CN=4
    CN=4
    CN=6
    linear, tetrahedral, square planar, octahedral
  6. How to find the charge on

    [Co(NH3)6]Cl3
    • -Charge for each NH3 is 0, so metal is 3+
    • -Becomes [Co(NH3)6]3+
    • -Switch the metal w/outside ion
  7. Name [Co(NH3)6]Cl3

    Steps and name
    hexaamminecobalt(III)chloride

    • -Name cation before anion
    • -Name ligand before metal ion
    • -If ligand is an anion, put "o" at end of name (chloro)
    • -If ligand is neutral, use regular name (except exceptions)
    • -Roman numeral to designate metal oxidation state
  8. Neutral: (*=exception)

    H2O *
    NH3 *
    CO *
    NO *
    CH3NH2
    aqua, ammine, carbonyl, nitrosyl, methylamine
  9. F-
    Br-
    Cl-
    I-
    OH-
    CN-
    fluoro, bromo, chloro, iodo, hydroxo, cyano
  10. Prefixes: simple ligands

    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    none, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa
  11. Prefixes: complicated ligands

    1
    2
    3
    4
    none, bis, tris, tetrakis
  12. Name [CoBr(NH3)5]SO4
    pentaaminebromocobalt(III)sulfate
  13. Metal complexes as anions:

    Name [K3CoF6] and steps
    potassium hexafluorocobaltate(III)

    • -Cation always first
    • -Add -ate to the end of the metal name
    • -If name ends with -ium, drop the -ium
    • -Some exceptions where you use the Latin name of the element instead
  14. Isomers
    Molecules with same molecular formulas but different arrangements
  15. Coordination Isomerism
    • -Different ligands in complex
    • -[Cr(NH3)5Cl]Br vs [Cr(NH3)5Br]Cl
  16. Linkage isomerism
    • Different binding sites on the ligand
    • -Double bond v single bond sometimes
  17. Geometric Isomers
    -Different arrangements of ligands around central atom
  18. cis
    ligands are side-by-side
  19. trans
    ligands are across from each other
  20. cis-platin vs. trans-platin
    Cis is a potent anti-tumor agent while trans-platin is ineffective against tumors
  21. Geometric Isomers: Angles

    Cis=
    Trans=
    • 90o, 180o 
  22. Optical Isomers
    • -Non-superimposable mirror images
    • -Ex: Hands
  23. Chiral Molecule
    Type of molecule that has a non-superimposable mirror image
  24. Enantiomers
    Pair of molecules that are non-superimposable mirror images (also called optical isomers)
  25. 2 assumptions of crystal field theory
    • -Ligands=negative point charges
    • -Metal-ligand bonds are ionic bonds
  26. Name the 5 possible d orbitals
    dz2, dx2-y2, dyz, dxy, dxz
  27. In the absence of ligands, d orbitals are
    degenerate (equal in energy)
  28. Octahedral arrangement of d orbitals
    • Top 2: dz2, dx2-y2
    • Bottom 3: dyz, dxy, dxz


  29. Octahedral arrangement direction of orbitals to point charges

    Energy increase
    • Top 2: directed toward point charges
    • Bottom 3: Between point charges

    -Energy of these orbitals not raised by as much
  30. What gives transition metal complexes their colors
    Where is this located
    • -the energy of absorbed photon
    • -typically in visible region of the spectrum
  31. What do you observe in the color wheel?
    You observe the complementary color of the light absorbed by the complex
  32. Spectrochemical Series
    • -Based on experiment
    • -Ranks ligands from weakest field to strongest field

    • I-<Br-<Cl-<F-<OH-<H2O<NH3<en<NO2-<CN-
    • Weakest--Strongest
  33. Strong field case

    [Co(CN)6]3-
    • -Large /\E
    • -Ground state: can not populate dx2-y2 and dz2
    • -Low electron spin
  34. Weak field case

    [CoBr6]3-
    • -Small /\E
    • -Ground state: can populate dx2-y2 and dz2
    • -High electron spin
  35. d-Splitting in Tetrahedral Complexes

    Positions of ligands are __
    Orbitals never point directly at __
    Ligands are closest to __
    • -Positions of ligands are different
    • -Orbitals never point directly at ligands =>Smaller splitting
    • -Ligands closest to dxy, dyz, dxz
  36. d-Splitting in tetrahedral complex

    Order of split energy levels is __
    Gap between /\E levels is __
    All tetrahedral complexes have __ fields and __ spin
    opposite, smaller, weak, high
  37. Ligand Field Theory:

    -What inaccurate theory assumed that ligand-metal bonds are ionic?
    -Utilizes concept of __
    -Ligand field theory accounts for __ bonding of __ to __
    crystal field theory, molecular orbital theory, covalent, ligands, metal
  38. Organic Molecules
    Compounds containing carbon

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