Chem 1C Cyclic Alkanes

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Chem 1C Cyclic Alkanes
2014-11-25 01:34:12
Chem 1C

Chem 1C cyclic alkanes
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  1. If in a circle, add __ before the name of the alkane
  2. If one substituent is present, don't __ it
  3. Naming cyclic alkanes with multiple substituents
    • -Numbering priority goes first to alphabetical substituent
    • -Count around ring to give lowest substituent numbers as possible
  4. C-H and C-C bond properties
    • -Relatively strong
    • -Used as lubricants and solvents
  5. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons (Alkenes and Alkynes)
    • -Contains a C=C or C-C triple bond
    • -Not all C's are sp3 hybridized
  6. Parent molecule in alkenes
    longest chain that contains the double bond
  7. Naming Alkenes (suffix: ene)

    Suffix= -ene

    • -Indicate carbon number where double bond appears
    • -Double bond gets priority in numbering
    • -Name substituents, if any
    • -If multiple double bonds present, put di, tri, tetra, etc, directly in front of ene
    • -Indicate carbon numbers on which all double bonds appear
  8. Pi Bond characteristics
    • -Rigid--> no free rotation around the triple carbon bond
    • -Can have geometric (cis and trans) isomers
  9. Naming Cyclic Alkenes
    • -Similar to naming cyclic alkanes
    • -Double bond gets priority
    • -Minimize C numbers
  10. Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    • -Contain a ring for which there is delocalization of pi electrons throughout the ring
    • -Simplest example=benzene
    • -For multiple substituents, number carbons to give minimum numbers of carbons
  11. Hydrocarbons containing a benzene ring are considered __
  12. Alcohols

    Characteristics and general formula
    Hydrogen bonding- high boiling point and good solubility in water

    Bound to nonpolar chain

    R-OH (oxygen has 2 lone pairs)

    R=The rest of the molecule
  13. Naming alcohols
    • -Replace "-e" of parent molecule with "-ol"
    • -If 3 or more carbons, indicate position of -OH functional group
    • -OH groups take priority over alkyl substituents
  14. Primary Alcohol
    Secondary Alcohol
    Tertiary Alcohol
    • 1-butanol
    • 2-butanol
    • 2-methyl, 2-butanol
  15. Solubility of Alcohols and "R" group in water and nonpolar substances
    Solubility in Water: Bigger "R" group= lower solubility

    Solubility in non-polar substances: Bigger "R" group=higher solubility
  16. Aldehydes

    • -Can not hydrogen bond to other aldehydes
    • -1 acceptor (oxygen) and no donors

    • -Not as soluble in water as alcohols or acids
    • -Can H bond with water
  17. Naming aldehydes
    • -Replace "-e" of parent molecule with "-al"
    • -No need to include position of group, since it must always be on the end carbon (which is #1)
    • -Group gets priority over alkyl substituents
  18. Ketones

    • -Ketone= Secondary C triple-bonded to O
    • -Can not hydrogen bond to other ketones
    • -Not as soluble in water as alcohols or acids
    • -Can H-bond with water
  19. Naming Ketones
    • -Replace "-e" of parent molecule with "-one"
    • -Ketone group gets priority over alkyl substituents
    • -Must include position of ketone group, since it can appear on any carbon
  20. Carboxylic Acids

    • -Hydrogen bonding
    • -1 donor (H) and 2 acceptors (O's)
    • -Higher B.P. than alchohols
    • -Good solubility in water
  21. Naming carboxylic acids
    • -Replace "-e" of parent molecule with "-oic acid"
    • -Acid group gets priority over alkyl substituents
    • -No need to include position of acid group, since it must always be on the end carbon (which is #1)