psychology ch 15

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psychology ch 15
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  1. treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth. 

    biomedical therapy, p. 546 
    eclectic approach, p. 546 
    psychotherapy, p. 546
    psychotherapy, p. 546
  2. prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person's physiology.

    psychotherapy, p. S46 
    biomedical therapy, p. 545 
    psychoanalysis, p. 547
    biomedical therapy, P- 546
  3. an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy. 

    client-centered therapy, p549
    eclectic approach, p. 546 
    psychoanalysis, p. 547
    eclectic approach, p. 546
  4. Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-and the therapist's interpretations of them-released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight. 

    resistance, p. 547 
    psychoanalysis, p. 547 
    transference, p. 547
    psychoanalysis, p. 547
  5. in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material. 

    resistance, p p. 547 
    psychotherapy, p. 546 
    interpretation, p. 547
    resistance, p. 547
  6. in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight. 

    eclectic approach, p. 546 
    resistance, p, 547 
    interpretation, p. 547
    interpretation, p. 547
  7. in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent). 

    interpretation, p. 547 
    resistance, p. 547 
    transference, p. 547
    transference, p. 547
  8. therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition; views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and seeks to enhance self-insight. 

    insight therapies, p. 548 
    psychodynamic therapy, p. 548 
    client-centered therapy, p. 549
    psychodynamic therapy, p. 548
  9. a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person's awareness of underlying motives and defenses. 

    insight therapies, p. 548 
    psychodynamic therapy, p. 548 
    interpretation, p. 547
    insight therapies, p. 548
  10. a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth.

    active listening, p- 549
    client-centered therapy, p. 549 
    unconditional positive regard, p. 550
    client-centered therapy, p. 549
  11. empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy. 

    active listening, p. 549 
    client-centered therapy, p. 549 unconditional positive regard, p. sso
    active listening, p. 549
  12. a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients develop self-awareness and self-acceptance. 

    unconditional positive regard, p. 550 
    active listening, p. 549 
    behavior therapy, p. 550
    unconditional positive regard, p. 550
  13. therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors. 

    behavior therapy, p. 550 
    unconditional positive regard, p. sso 
    active listening, p. 549
    behavior therapy, p. 550
  14. • In psychoanalysis, patients may experience strong feelings for their analyst, which is called ________.  . Patients are said to demonstrate anxiety when they put up mental blocks around sensitive memories—showing ______.  . The analyst will attempt to offer insight into the underlying anxiety by offering a(n) ______of the mental blocks. 


    A)  resistance, p. 547 ,interpretation, p. 547 ,transference, p. 547 
    B)  interpretation, p. 547 ,resistance, p. 547 ,transference, p. 547
    C) transference, p. 547 ,resistance, p. 547 ,interpretation, p. 547 
    C)  transference, p. 547 ,resistance, p. 547 ,interpretation, p. 547
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. behavior therapy procedures that use classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; include exposure therapies and aversive conditioning. 

    counterconditioning, p. 551 
    exposure therapies, p. 551 
    behavior therapy, p. 550
    counterconditioning, p. 551
  16. behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality ________ ___________,at treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid. 


    exposure therapies, p. 551
    behavior therapy, p. 550 
    cognitive therapy, p. 554
    exposure therapies, p. 551
  17. a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias. 

    aversive conditioning, p. 552 
    systematic desensitization, p. 551 
    virtual reality exposure therapy, p. 552
    systematic desensitization, p. 551
  18. an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or Public speaking. 

    virtual reality exposure therapy, p. 552 
    aversive conditioning, p. 552 
    systematic desensitization, p. 551
    virtual reality exposure therapy, p. 552
  19. a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol). 

    behavior therapy, p. 550 
    exposure therapies, p. 551 
    aversive conditioning, p. 552
    aversive conditioning, p. 552
  20. an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats. 

    token economy, p. 553 
    systematic desensitization, p. 551 
    aversive conditioning, p. 552
    token economy, p. 553
  21. • Exposure therapies and aversive conditioning are applications of _______conditioning. Token economies are an application of _______ conditioning.
    ANSWERS S: classical; operant
  22. therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions. 

    cognitive therapy, p. 554 
    group therapy, p. 557 
    exposure therapies, p. 551
    cognitive therapy, p- 554
  23. a popular integrative therapy that combines thinking) with behavior therapy (changing thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).
    cognitive-behavioral therapy, p. 556
  24. Question your interpretations Explore your beliefs, revealing faulty assumptions such as "I must be liked by everyone." 
    Rank thoughts and emotions Gain perspective by ranking your thoughts and emotions from mildly to extremely upsetting. 


    What selected cognitive therapy technique am I?

    Change beliefs 
    Test beliefs 
    Reveal beliefs
    Reveal beliefs
  25. Examine consequences Explore difficult situations, assessing possible consequences and challenging faulty reasoning. 
    Decatastrophize thinking Work through the actual worst-case consequences of the situation you face (it is often not as bad as imagined). Then determine how to cope with the real situation you face.

    What selected cognitive therapy technique am I?
    Change beliefs 
    Test beliefs 
    Reveal beliefs
    Test beliefs
  26. Take appropriate responsibility bility Challenge total self-blame and negative thinking, noting aspects for which you may be truly responsible, as well as aspects that aren't your responsibility. 
    Resist extremes Develop new ways of thinking and feeling to replace maladaptive habits. For example, change from thinking "I am a total failure" to "I got a failing grade on that paper, and I can make these changes to succeed next time."

    What selected cognitive therapy technique am I?
    Change beliefs 
    Test beliefs 
    Reveal beliefs
    Change beliefs
  27. therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction.
    group therapy, p. 557
  28. therapy that treats the family as a system- Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members.
    family therapy, p. 558
  29. Unconscious conflicts from child- hood experiences 

    Reduce anxiety through self-insight.
     
    Interpret patients' memories and feelings. 

    Psychodynamic 
    Client-centered 
    Behavior 
    cognitive 
    Cognitive-behavioral 
    Group and family
    Psychodynamic
  30. Barriers to self-understanding and self-acceptance 

    Enable growth via unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathy. 

    Listen actively and reflect client's feelings. 

    Psychodynamic 
    Client-centered 
    behavior 
    Cognitive 
    Cognitive-behavioral 
    Group and family
    Client-centered
  31. Dysfunctional behaviors 

    Relearn adaptive behaviors; extinguish problem ones. 

    Use classical conditioning (via exposure or aversion therapy) or operant conditioning (as in token economies). 

    Psychodynamic 
    Client-centered 
    Behavior 
    Cognitive 
    Cognitive-behavioral 
    Group and family
    Behavior
  32. Negative, self-defeating thinking 

    Promote healthier thinking and self-talk. 

    Train people to dispute negative thoughts and attributions. 

    Psychodynamic 
    Client-centered 
    Behavior 
    Cognitive 
    Cognitive-behavioral 
    Group and family
    Cognitive
  33. Self-harmful thoughts and behaviors 

    Promote healthier thinking and adaptive behaviors. 

    Train people to counter self-harmful thoughts and to act out their new ways of thinking. 

    Psychodynamic 
    Client-centered 
    Behavior 
    Cognitive 
    Cognitive-behavioral 
    Group and family
    Cognitive-behavioral
  34. Stressful relationships 

    heal relationships. 

    Develop an understanding of family and other social systems, explore roles, and "prove communication. 

    Psychodynamic 
    Client-centered 
    Behavior 
    Cognitive 
    Cognitive-behavioral 
    Group and family
    Group and family
  35. • Which of the following is NOT a benefit of group therapy? 

    a. more focused attention from the therapist 
    b. less expensive 
    c. social feedback 
    d. reassurance that others share troubles
    ANSWER: a
  36. • Therapy is more likely to be helpful in those with the _______(most/least) clearly defined problems.
    ANSWER- most
  37. clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences. 

    evidence-based practice, p. 562 
    unconditional positive regard, p. 550 
    psychopharmacology, p. 568
    evidence-based practice, p. 562
  38. • Those who undergo psychotherapy are ________(more/less) likely to show improvement than those who do not undergo psychotherapy.
    AHSWER'-more
  39. Therapists and Their Training 

    Most are psychologists with a Ph.D. (includes research training) or Psy.D. (focuses on therapy) supplemented by a supervised internship and, often, postdoctoral training. About half work in agencies and institutions, half in private practice. 

    Clinical psychologists 
    Psychiatrists 
    Clinical or psychiatric social workers 
    Counselors
    Clinical psychologists
  40. are physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders. Not all have had extensive training in psychotherapy, but as M.D.s or D.O.s they can prescribe medications. Thus, they tend to see those with the most serious problems. Many have their own private practice. 

    clinical psychologists 
    Psychiatrists 
    Clinical or psychiatric social workers 
    Counselors
    Psychiatrists
  41. A two-year master of social work graduate program plus postgraduate supervision prepares some offer psychotherapy, mostly to people with everyday personal and family problem; 

    Clinical psychologists 
    Psychiatrists 
    Clinical or psychiatric social workers 
    Counselors
    Clinical or psychiatric social workers
  42. Marriage and family counselors specialize in family relations problems. Clergy provide counseling to countless people. Abuse counselors work with substance abusers and with spouse and child abusers and their victims. Mental health and | other counselors may be required to have a two-year master s degree. 

    Clinical or psychiatric social workers 
    Psychiatrists 
    Clinical psychologists 
    Counselors
    Counselors
  43. the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.' 


    antipsychotic drugs, p. 568 
    psychopharmacology, p. 568 
    antianxiety drugs, p. 569
    psychopharmacology, p. 568
  44. drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder. 

    psychopharmacology, p. 568 
    antipsychotic drugs, p. 568 
    antianxiety drugs, p. 569
    antipsychotic drugs, p. 568
  45. drugs used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    antidepressant drugs, p. 569 
    antianxiety drugs, p. 569 
    antipsychotic drugs, p. 568
    antidepressant drugs, p. 569
  46. • The drugs given most often to treat depression are called ______. Schizophrenia is often treated with _____drugs.
    ANSWERS: ant antidepressants; antipsychotic
  47. a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
    electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), p. 577
  48. the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
    repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), p. 573
  49. surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in aneffort to change behavior. 

    psychosurgery, p. 574 
    lobotomy, p. 574
    psychosurgery, p. 574
  50. procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion controlling centers of the inner brain. 

    psychosurgery, p. 574 
    lobotomy, p. 574
    lobotomy, p. 574
  51. • Severe depression that has not responded to other therapy may be treated with ____ _______which can cause memory loss. More moderate neural stimulation techniques designed to help alleviate depression include ____ _____stimulation, _____-_____stimulation, and ____  ____________ magnetic stimulation
    ANSWERS: electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); vagus nerve; deep-brain; repetitive transcranial
  52. the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma.
    resilience, P-576
  53. Neurotransmitter malfunction 

    ControL symptoms of psychological disorders 

    Alter brain chemistry through drugs. 

    Drug therapies 
    Brain stimulation 
    Psychosurgery 
    Therapeutic life- style change
    Drug therapies
  54. Severe, "treatment-resistant" depression 

    Alleviate depression that is unresponsive to drug therapy. 

    Stimulate brain through electroconvulsive shock, vagus nerve stimulation, deep- brain stimulation, or magnetic impulses

    Drug therapies 
    Brain stimulation 
    Psychosurgery 
    Therapeutic life- style change
    Brain stimulation
  55. Brain malfunction

    Relieve severe disorders. 

    Remove or destroy, brain tissue. 

    brain stimulation 
    Drug therapies 
    Psychosurgery 
    Therapeutic life- style change
    Psychosurgery
  56. Stress and unhealthy lifestyle 

    Restore healthy biological state. 

    • Alter lifestyle through adequate exercise, sleep, and other changes. 

    psychosurgery 
    | Therapeutic life-style change 
    Brain stimulation 
    Drug therapies
    Therapeutic life- style change
  57. 1. A therapist who helps patients search for the unconscious roots of their problem and offers interpretations of their behaviors, feelings, and  dreams, is drawing from 

    a. psychoanalysis. 
    b. humanistic therapies. 
    c. client-centered therapy. 
    d. behavior therapy.
    1. a
  58. _____therapies are designed to help individuals discover the thoughts and feehngs that guide their motivation and behavior.
    2. Insight
  59. 3. Compared with psychoanalysts, humanistic therapists are more likely to emphasize 

    a. hidden or repressed feelings. 
    b. childhood experiences. 
    c. psychological disorders. 
    d. self-fulfillment and growth.
    3. d
  60. 4. A therapist who restates and clarifies the client s statements is practicing ______ _____.
    4. active listening
  61. 5. The goal of behavior therapy is to 

    a. identify and treat the underlying causes of the problem. 
    b. improve learning and insight. 
    c. eliminate the unwanted behavior. 
    d. improve communication and social sensitivity.
    5. c
  62. 6. Behavior therapists often use ______techniques such as systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning to encourage clients to produce new responses to old stimuli
    6. counterconditioning
  63. 7. The technique of _______  __________teaches people to relax in the presence of progressively more anxiety-provoking stimuli.
    7. systematic desensitization
  64. 9. At a treatment center, people who display a desired behavior receive coins that they can later exchange for other rewards. This is an example of a(n) _______  ________
    9. token economy
  65. 10. Cognitive therapy has been especially effective in treating 

    a. nail biting. 
    b. phobias. 
    c. alcohol use disorder. 
    d. depression.
    10. d
  66. _______--______therapists help people to change their self-defeating ways of thinking and to act out those changes in their daily behavior.
    11. Cognitive-behavioral
  67. 12. In family therapy, the therapist assumes that 

    a. only one family member needs to change. 
    b. each person's actions trigger reactions from other family members. 
    c. dysfunctional families must improve their interactions or give up their children. 
    d. All of the above.
    12. b
  68. 13. The most enthusiastic or optimistic view of the effectiveness of psychotherapy comes from 

    a. outcome research. 
    b. randomized clinical trials. 
    c. reports of clinicians and clients. 
    d. a government study of treatment for depression.
    13. c
  69. 14. Studies show that _______— therapy is the most effective treatment for most psychological disorders. 

    a. behavior 
    b. humanistic 
    c. psychodynamic 
    d. no one type of
    14. d
  70. 15. What are the three components of evidence-based practice? 


    knowledge of the patient 
    active listening 
    counterconditioning 
    clinical expertise
    research evidence 
    systematic desensitization
    15. research evidence, clinical expertise, and knowledge of the patient
  71. 17. Some antipsychotic drugs, used to calm people with schizophrenia, can have unpleasant side effects, most notably 

    a. hyperactivity. 
    b. convulsions and momentary memory loss. 
    c. sluggishness, tremors, and twitches. 
    d. paranoia.
    17. c
  72. 18- Drugs like Xanax and Ativan, which depress central nervous system activity, can lead to substance use disorder when used as ongoing treatment. These drugs are referred to as _________drugs.
    18. antianxiety
  73. 19. A simple salt that often brings relief to patients suffering the highs and lows of bipolar disorder is ___________.
    19. lithium
  74. 20. When drug therapies have not been effective, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be used as treatment, largely for people with 

    a. severe obsessive-compulsive disorder. 
    b. severe depression. 
    c. schizophrenia. 
    d. anxiety disorders.
    20. b
  75. 21. An approach that seeks to identify and alleviate conditions people at high risk for developing psychological disorders is called 

    a. deep-brain stimulation. 
    b. the mood-stabilizing perspective. 
    c. spontaneous recovery. 
    d. biomedical therapy.
    21. d

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