What do kids get sick? Why are infants vulnerable?
Infants are vulnerable as passive immunity from mom is limited. This immunity fades after birth
Kids get exposed to diseases through contacts with others
This exposure develops antibodies prevent subsequent infections with the same organism
What behaviors contribute to illness?
Leaking diapers (fecal/oral rt)
Not blowing nose often enough
Daycare staff may not use proper handwashing
What is the definition of an infectious disease and a communicable disease?
Infectious disease: any communicable disease caused by microorganisms that are commonly transmitted from one person to another
Communicable disease: an illness directly or indirectly transmitted from one person to another, by contact with contaminated items, contact with bodily fluids, or through vectors (ticks, mosquitos, or other insect)
What is the difference between Enanthem and Exanthem?
Enanthem: Rash inside the body, such as kolick spots
Exanthem: rash outside the body, such as varicella
What is the difference between active and passive immunity?
Active immunity: body makes the antibodies through vaccines or immunity established by contact with the disease
Passive Immunity: antibodies made by another human or animal and given to another person; does not confer into long term immunity (Such as passed from mother or IV immunoglobulins)
What is the chain of infection and what three links need to be present/where can we break the chain?
-Portal of exit
-Portal of Entry
What is the different between direct and indirect transmission of pathogens?
Direct: physical contact between source of infection and host
Indirect: occur when pathogens survive outside of human host before causing infection and disease
How can prevent the spread of disease?
Primary prevention through vaccinations
Controlling the spread of disease through hand washing, infection control policies, and reducing the rusk of cross-transmission of organisms
Describe Varicella. What are the s/s and how is it treated?
Can be spread one day before lesions until 6 days after
S/S include fever, malaise, HA, abdom pain, and itchy clear fluid filled vesicles all over body
Treatment is supportive for fever and itching (prevention of secondary infection)
What is Coxsackievirus? How is transmitted and what are the s/s? What is the treatment?
Hand, foot, Mouth disease and Herpangina
Caused by Coxsackievirus A16, Enterovirus 71
Spread by fecal-oral route and respiratory routes
S/S include fever, sore throat, blister like sores inside cheeks, gums, tongues, as well as hands and feet
Herpangina has papulovesicular lesions on pharynx only
Treatment is supportive with cool drinks, topical lotion, and isolation
What is Diptheria? How is it contracted? What are the s/s and how is it treated?
Caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Contact with nasal or eye discharge
S/S include fever, anorexia, rhinorrhea, cough, stridor
Tonsils and pharynx covered in thick, bluish, white patch
Treated with antibiotics and IV antitoxin
Isolation with monitoring for resp distress
What is Erythema Infectiosum? How is it transmitted and what are the s/s? What is the treatment?
Also called Fifth's disease, its caused by the human parvovuris B19
Transmitted through resp secretions and blood
S/S include a flu-like illness and a fiery red rash on cheeks
Maculopapular rash on trunk and limbs
Treatment is supportive with fever control, antipruritucs, soothing baths, and isolation
What is Haemophilis Influenza Type B? How is it spread and what are the s/s? How is it treated and prevented?
Caused by Coccobacilli H Influenzae
Spread through direct contact or droplet inhalation