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Glaucoma? typer of glaucoma? What is IOP?
- visual field loss secondary to optic nerve damage.
- Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and Acute angle-closure glaucoma.
- IOP: intraocular pressure.
What is the main goal of drug therapy for glaucoma? what is the preferred route? are drugs always effective? what other treatments are there?
- goal: facilitating aqueous humor outflow and reducing aqueous humor production.
- Route: topical. Systemic effects relatively uncommon.
- effectiveness: combination therapy is better than monotherapy. (usually 2 or 3 - drugs added up, when one doesn't work)
- alternative tx: laser trabeculoplasty and trabeculectomy.
what are first line therapy agents? second line?
- First line: nonselective beta blockers agents, Selective beta1 blockers, alpha2 adrenergic agonists, Prostaglandin analogs.
- Secondary line: Cholinergic agonists (muscarinic agonists, and cholinergesterase inhibitors) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.
Describe first line agents? drugs? MOA? and AE?.
- Beta adrenergic blockers: Nonselective and beta1 selective.
- Nonselective: it means combination of Alpha and Beta-- Timolol -- decreases aqueous formation lowering pressure in the eye -- it could become systemic, cardiac reseptors (heart blocking, and bradycardia) and bronchospasm.
- Selective: B1 -- Betaxolol (good DOC for COPD and sthma pts) -- decreased aqueous formation lowering the pressure in the eye -- cardiac receptors (heart block, bradycardia, hypotension)
- Prostaglandin Analogs: adrenal which helps w the immune response increasing aqueous outflow and open the channel of schelemm -- Latanoprost (xalatan) -Prost. -- brown pigmentation of the iris and eyelid.
- Alpha2-adrenergic Agonist: dilate, decrease aqueous formation -- Brimonidine (alphagon) -- headaches, dry mouth, dry nose, altere taste, conjunctivitis, prutitus.
Describe Second-line agents? Drugs? MOA? and AE? ONLY NEED TO KNOW FIRST LINE OF DRUGS.
- Cholinergic agonist, Muscurenics-- stop secretion (in the eye is different than in the rest of the body) -- Pilocarpine, Miosis, blurred vision.
- Chilinesterae inhibitors.
list the following for thin to thick: cream, gel, ointment?
gel --> cream --> ointment.
AE of glucocorticoids? administration?
- AE: thinning of the skin, stretch marks, purpura, possible systemic toxicity.
- Admin: apply in a thin fild and gently rub into the skin -- Do not use occlusive bandages, or tight fitting diapers or plastic pants.
What are keratolytic agents for? primary agent?
- Function: promotes shedding of horny layers of the skin.
- Agents: Salicylic acid ( warts, and corns) -- Sulfur( acene, psoriasis, dermatitis) -- Benzoyl peroxide (proactive).
treatment of Otitis Media? AOM? Preventions?
When does it become Recurrent Otitis Media?
- Acetaminophen, ibuprofen, codeine.
- AOM: acute otitis media -- treated with amoxicillin, if not clavulanate (augmentin)
- Preventions: breast-feed for 6 months -- avoid child care when sick -- influenza vaccine -- Pnuemoniae (streptococcus) vaccine.
- ROM: AOM that occurs 3 or more time within 6 months, or 4 or more time within 12 yrs.
What is swimmers ears? treatment?
How to prevent fungal infections?
- Acute otitis externa (OE)
- Don't need oral antibiotics, but sometimes drops in the ear. the following:
- Adult: ciprofloxacin.
- Children: Cephalexin (keflex)
- FI: use rubbing alcohol after swimming in lakes, oceans, and others.