Vaccinations

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julianne.elizabeth
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290051
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Vaccinations
Updated:
2014-11-26 15:44:21
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lccc nursing peds vaccinations immunizations
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For Gosselin's med exam
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  1. What is the basic concept of vaccinations?
    • Vaccines introduce antigens into the body
    • Antigen: foreign substance which triggers the immune response
    • Antibody: protein made by the body in response to antigen
  2. What diseases are decreased by vaccinations?
    • Measles, mumps, Rubella
    • Polio
    • Pertussis
    • Diptheria
    • Smallpox
    • Haemphilius Influenzae Type B
    • Hepatitis B
    • Varicella
  3. What are the different types of vaccinations? Give examples of each
    • Killed virus vaccine (IPV)
    • Toxoid (Tetanus)
    • Live Virus Vaccine (Measles, Varicella, RV)
    • Recombinant Form (Hep B, Pertussis)
    • Conjugated form (HiB)
  4. What are some barriers to vaccinations?
    • Economic factors
    • Limited access to health care
    • Clinic only open during working hours
    • Parents lack knowledge
    • Religious Prohibition
    • Philosophical beliefs
  5. What are some reasons parents choose not to vaccinate?
    • Concern that vaccines are unsafe
    • Vaccines might not fully prevent disease
    • Does not want the government to monitor
    • Feels disease is not a threat anymore
    • Side effects don't justify the benefits
    • Belief that they can control child's susceptibility to disease
  6. What assessments should be done prior to vaccination?
    • Examine immunization records
    • Consult catch-up schedule if needed
    • Make full use of opportunities to vaccinate
    • Minor illness or fever is not a contraindication
    • Ask about past reactions to vaccines, pregnancy, or allergies to vaccine components (eggs, neomycin, gelatin, etc)
  7. What compromises may put a child at risk with vaccinations?
    • Children with immunodeficiency: received steroid therapy, other immunosuppressive therapies, generalized malignancies, immunologic disorder
    • Risk for complications from communicable diseases, especially varicella and erythema infectiosum
    • Risk for viremia from varicella (virus throughout the body leading to serious complications
  8. What documentation is required for vaccinations?
    • Date of administration
    • Vaccine given
    • Manufacturer, lot #, exp date
    • Site and route of administration
    • Document that parent received VIS appropriate to all vaccines administered
    • Document date of VIS, located at the bottom of VIS sheet
    • Document on parent's record to keep
    • Document any adverse effects
    • Provide guidelines on managing mild reactions at home
  9. What instructions should parents be given after vaccination?
    • Pre-medicate prior to immunizations with an appropriate dose of Acetaminophen or ibuprofen
    • Ibuprofen may be given to infants older than 6 mo of age
    • Avoid the use of aspirin (Reye Sydrome)
    • Cool compresses to injection site
    • Gentle movement of involved extremity
    • Observe for complications and notify MD
  10. What is the Hep B Vaccine? How is it given? How many doses are given and when?
    • Hepatitis B: Inactivated virus
    • Given IM
    • 3 doses: birth, 2 months, 6-18 months
  11. What is the IPV vaccine and how is it given? How many doses do you receive and when?
    • Inactivated Polio Virus
    • Given SC or IM
    • 4 doses: 2 mo, 4 mo, 6-18 mo, 4-6yrs
  12. What is the HiB vaccine and how is it given? How many doses are given and when?
    • Haemophilus Influenzae Type B: inactivated bacterial polysaccaride conjugate
    • Given IM
    • 2-3 doses plus booster:2 mo, 4 mo, 6 mo, 12-15mo
  13. What is the Pneumococcal vaccine and how is it given? How many doses are given and when?
    • PCV: Inactivated bacterial polysaccaride conjugate
    • Given SC or IM
    • 4 doses: 2mo, 4 mo, 6 mo, 12-15 mo
  14. What is the DTaP vaccine and how is it given? How many doses are given and when?
    • Diptheria, Tetanus and Pertussis: Inactivated bacterial toxoids
    • Given IM
    • 5 doses: 2mo, 4mo, 6mo, 15-18mo, 4-6yrs
  15. What is the RV vaccine and how is it given? How many doses are given and when?
    • Rotavirus: live virus
    • Given PO
    • 2-3 doses, depending on type used: 2mo,4mo, 6mo
  16. What is the MMR vaccine and how is it given? How many doses are given and when?
    • Measles, Mumps, Rubella: live attenuated virus
    • There is a new version which also contains Varicella
    • Given SC
    • 2 doses: 12-15mo, 4-6 yrs
  17. What is the varicella vaccine and how is it given? How many doses and when?
    • Varicella Zoster (Chicken Pox): Live attenuated virus
    • Given SC
    • 2 doses:  12-15mo, 4-6yrs
  18. What is the Influenza vaccine? What are the two different types? Who can have each type and when can it be given?
    • Flu Vaccine
    • Inactivated viral either trivalent or quadvalent given IM annually from 6mo+
    • Live Attenuated virus given in nasal spray annually from 2yrs +
  19. What is the HPV vaccine and how is it given? How many doses and when?
    • Human Papillomavirus: Inactivated virus
    • Given IM
    • 3 dose series: 11-12 years
  20. What is the meningococcal vaccine and how is it given? How many doses and when?
    • MCV: Inactivated bacterial polysaccaride conjugate
    • Given IM
    • 1 dose and a booster: 11-12 yrs, 16-18 yrs
  21. What is the difference between the TDaP and DTaP vaccine? When is the TDaP vaccine given?
    • Both contain the same vaccines
    • TDaP is like a booster for DTaP
    • TDaP given at 11-12yrs
  22. What vaccine is given at birth? What vaccines are given at 2 months?
    • Hep B is the only vaccine given at birth
    • 2 months: Hep B, RV, DTaP, HiB, PCV, IPV
  23. What vaccines are given at 4 months?
    4 mo: RV, DTaP, HiB, PCV, IPV
  24. What vaccines are given at 6 months?
    6 months: Hep B, RV, DTaP, HiB, PCV, IPV and annual Flu vaccine can be given
  25. What vaccines are given to toddlers?
    Hewett V Packard, MD

    • HiB:12-15mo
    • PCV:12-15mo
    • Varicella: 12-15mo
    • MMR:12-15mo
    • DTaP:15-18mo
  26. What vaccines are given from preschool to school age?
    • 4-6 years
    • MDIV
    • (Monkeys Didn't Invent Vaccines)

    • MMR
    • DTaP
    • IPV
    • Varicella

    Annual flu vaccine (either IM or Nasal Spray)
  27. What vaccines are given to adolescents?
    don'T Have Money

    • TDaP: 11-12yrs
    • HPV (3 doses): 11-12yrs
    • MCV: 11-12 yrs, booster 16-18yrs

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