Intro to Micro Part III

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Intro to Micro Part III
2014-12-09 19:58:53
HIV antibiotics drugs
The last portion of Introduction to Microbiology with Dr. Lauzon
Show Answers:

  1. People with aids are particularly prone to developing various cancers, especially those caused by viruses such as ___
    Karposi's sarcoma and cervical caner, or cancers of the immune system known as lymphomas specifically Burkitt's lymphoma
  2. These cancers are usually more aggressive and difficult to treat in people with Aids
  3. Signs of Kaposi's sarcoma in light skinned people include
    light skinned people are round brown, reddish or purple spots that develop in the skin or in the mouth. In dark-skinned people, the spots are more pigmented
  4. Why are cancers more dangerous for people diagnosed with AIDS?
    • 1. prone to lower respiratory infections so increased risk for getting TB
    • 2. have more difficulty with chemotherapy 
    • 3. immune system compromised
  5. On what parts of the body do shingles take over?
    around the face, on your neck and shoulder under your chest and on your rib
  6. Why is it that HIV antibodies do not reach detectable levels in the blood for one to three months following infection?
    It may take the antibodies as long as six months to be produced in quantities large enough to show up in standard blood tests such as an ELISA
  7. When should people exposed to the virus get an HIV test?
    when they are likely to develop antibodies to the virus- within 6 weeks to 12 months after possible exposure
  8. In the direct method for E.L.I.S.A what are you searching for?
    The pathogen.
  9. E.L.I.S.A
    Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  10. In the indirect method for E.L.I.S.A what are you searching for?
  11. What is the most common E.L.I.S.A method, direct or indirect and why?
    A lot easier to look for antibodies in someones blood then it is to find a pathogen on a T-cell
  12. Explain the steps in the indirect method of E.L.I.S.A
    1. Take blood sample and add sample to antigen wells on the microtitre plate medium. 

    2. Wash away the residual sample

    3. Add primary atigen 

    4. Rinse away the residual sample

    5. Add substrate
  13. What is a titre?
    the concentration of antibodies in a solution
  14. What is the first measure/ test of a titre?
    The acute titre is the 1st measure of titre.
  15. What is the second measure/ test in a titre?
    Convalescent titre. Convalesce means done later. If the titre (concentration of antibodies in a solution) increases then you have evidence that you were exposed by that 
  16. If the pathogen isn't detected in the acute titre indirect test why is it important to come back a few days later?
    It is important because of timing. A person can be at the earliest stage of infection.
  17. Why is direct E.L.I.S.A called "Sandwich E.L.I.S.A?"
    Because the primary antibody binds to the antigen and then the secondary antibody binds to the other side of the antigen sandwiching
  18. What is the function of interferons (INF)?
    Interferons are chemical messengers that stimulate a cell when under a viral attack. That cell then warns neighboring cells making them interferon-sensitized.
  19. What happens with an Interferons- sensitized cell? There are two ways done simultaneously that the cell uses to protect itself.
    1. Oligo A Synthetase is an enzyme that stimulates the production of endoribonuclease.

    2. Inactive protein kinase which will become an active protein kinase because it gets phosphorylated. The active protein kinase effects viral protein in some biosynthesis because it hits the Golgi but mostly the assembly
  20. Endoribonuclease is effective to DNA because...
    Because it will still make mRNA but it will interfere with biosynthesis of the virus
  21. What is a cocktail in regard to anti-HIV drugs?
    • A combination of a total of 3 drugs
    • ex: Protease inhibitor,  reverse transcriptase and non nuke
  22. What do nukes prevent?
    "nukes" prevent healthy T-cells in the body from becoming infected with HIV by blocking the replication of HIV in a persons blood
  23. What does NRTI's stand for?
    Nucleoside Analogues or "nukes" for short
  24. What are NNRTI's (non nukes)?
    used in combination with other anti-HIV drugs-usually a total of 3 drugs- then this combination therapy can block the replication of HIV in a persons blood.
  25. If you flood someones system with Soluble CD4 (a protein) what will happen?
    virus will bind to Soluble CD4 and dissolve virus. It can cause allergic reactions in people because it is a protein
  26. How does Symbiotic Control a.k.a Paratransgenesis work against HIV or people with inflammatory disease?
    Take a beneficial bacterium such as gut bacteria or bacteria in the vaginal canal. Ex: add the genetically modified bacteria Lactobacillus and Lactococcus to express CD4. The bacteria will colonize in the patients vagina so when in contact with HIV virus the virus will bind to the CD4 bacteria
  27. Symbiotic Control can control this disease
    Chagas Disease
  28. Of the following which eukaryotic microorganisms affect humans?
    a. fungi
    b. algae
    c. protozoa
    d. parasitic helminths
    e. anthropods
    f. all the above
    f. all the above
  29. Give two examples of an anthropod
    Ticks and mosquito
  30. Why are infections caused by eukaryotic microorganisms difficult to treat for humans?
    because humans have eukaryotic cells.
  31. Which of the following is NOT true in regards to algae?
    A. They reproduce sexually and asexually
    B. Diseases caused by algae are not infectious; they are intoxications because the symptoms are due to ingesting toxins produces by algae
    C. They are chemoheterotrophs
    D. They obtain nutrients by diffusion
    C. They are chemoheterotrophs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Which of the following is NOT true in regards to fungi?
    A. They reproduce with sexual and asexual spores
    B. All fungi are multicellular, even yeasts
    C. They obtain nutrients by absorption
    D. They are chemoheterotrophs 
    B. All fungi are multicellular, even yeasts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. How are fungi beneficial to the circle of life?
    Fungi are important in the food chain because they decompose dead plant matter, thereby recycling vital elements
  34. Is penicillin harmful to humans cells? Why or why not?
    Penicillin is not harmful to human cells. Penicillin prevents the synthesis of peptidoglycan in the cell wall of bacterial microbes causing the cell to lyse. Because penicillin targets the synthesis process, only actively grown cells are affected by the antibiotics-and, because human cells do not contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls, penicillin has very little toxicity for host cells.
  35. Among the antibiotics that interfere with protein synthesis such as tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin- why are they harmful to human cells?
    These antibiotics attack ribosomes in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells.