Drug abuse

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Drug abuse
2014-11-26 20:24:02
alcohol cocaine FDA

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  1. Drugs used to facilitate withdrawal?
    • Benzodiazepines, and adjuncts to benzodiazepines (if over comsume).
    • Benzodiasepines: Chlordiazepoxide (librium, others), Diazepam (valium) common, lorazepam (ativan) common.
    • Adjuncts to benzodiazepines: carbamazepine (antiepilectic drug), clinidine (alpha-adrenergic blocker), atenolol and propranolol (B-adrenergic blockers). 

  2. Drugs used to maintain abstinence? Aversion therapy? Other drugs?
    • Disulfiram (antabuse). This drug is given to someone that has a problem n can't stop. 
    • AT: refrain from drinking -- unpleasant effects from alcohol -- pts must be thoroughly informed to avoid all forms of alcohol.
    • Naltrexone (revia): decrease craving and blocks alcohol's pleasurable effects (PO and IM).
    • Acamprosate (campral): reduces unpleasant feeling brought on by abstinence.
    • Topiramate (topamax): reduces craving for alcohol.
    • Ondansetron (zofran): to help w nausea.
  3. What are the most effective treatment for smoking cessation?
    Other drugs?
    • Varenicline alone, nicotine patch, PRN nocotine nasal spray or nicotine gum.
    • Nicotine patch: Nicotrol and nicoderm CQ.
    • Nicotine gum: Nicorette
    • Nicotine lozenge: Commit
    • Nicotine nasal spray: Nicotrol NS
    • Nicotine inhaler: Nicotrol inhaler

    Nicotine free products: Verenicline (chantix), Bupropion (zyban).

    • Second-line agents (when pts are gaining weight or other)
    • Nortriptyline (aventyl, pamelor), and clonidine (catapres).
  4. Controlled substances and examples?
    • Schedule I: No medical or clinical use (heroin, LSD), marijuana, ecstasy.
    • schedule II: high potential for abuse (Narcotics and opiods like Dilaudid, methadone, Demerol, oxycodone, morphine, opium, and codeine.
    • Schedule III: less potential for abuse (Vicodin, tylenol w codeine, and others)
    • Schedule IV: benzos.
    • Schedule V: less potent opiods (Robitussin, phenergan w codeine, ezogabine.
  5. Marijuana increases production of? TE?
    • Prostaglandin E2.
    • TE: Antiemetic, appetite stimulant, neuropathic pain.
  6. whats in an urine drug testing?
    • Alcohol (less than 1 day)
    • amphetamines (up to 1 day)
    • barbiturates (up to 1 day)
    • Benzodiazepines (up to 2 days)
    • cocaine (up to 2 days)
    • methadone (up to 3 days)
    • Marijuana (single use up to 6 days, chronic use up to 29 days)
    • Opioids (short acting up to 1 day)
    • Phencyclidine (up to 6 days)
    • Phenobarbital (up to 6 days)