94 degrees F or lower, so 95 degrees F is NOT hypothermia yet.
Slows chemical reactions, increases blood viscosity, slows blood flow, facilities blood coagulation, stimulates profound vasoconstriction, what is this?
What are some signs of a heatstroke?
sweating ceases (core temp rises rapidly), skin dry and flushed (vascular collapse), irritability, confusion, stuporous, comatose (cerebral edema, degeneration of CNS, and renal tubular necrosis)
What will the regulatory center do is a fever goes above 105 degrees F?
cease to function
What happens if a fever goes higher than 105 degrees F?
damages the neurons
Up to what degree can the brain tolerate?
105 degrees F
Why does a heatstroke happen?
the thermoregulatory center is overstressed
What age group is most at risk for a heatstroke?
babies and the elderly
What is a potentially lethal consequence of a fever?
Interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, interferons and TNF produced and released as exogenous bacteria are destroyed and absorbed by phagocytic cells in host, when does this process occur?
What does the hypothalamus do during a fever?
raises the set point
What does fever begin with?
introduction of exogenous pyrogens or endotoxins
What is failure of normal thermoregulatory mechanism?
In thermoregulation, what does release of epinephrine and adrenal medulla cause?
vasoconstriction, glycolysis, and increased metabolic rates
In thermoregulation, what does thyroxine cause release of?
epinephrine from adrenal medulla
In thermoregulation, what does TSH cause release of?
thyroxine from thyroid
What results in release of TSH from anterior pituitary?
Besides infection, what is something else fever can result from?
What is released with heat production?
Where does heat production begin?
Cutaneous and visceral neurons converge on same ascending neuron and brain cannot distinguish between origin of the two, what type of pain is this?
Area supplied by same spinal segment as actual site of injury (upper abdomen - T8, L1, L2), what type of pain is this?
Describe visceral pain.
internal organs, abdomen, skeleton
What can cause obtundation?
anesthesia or intracranial pressure
What is coma?
no arousal to any stimulus but brainstem reflexes intact
What is stupor?
arouses only to painful stimuli
What is obtundation?
awakens in response to stimulation, continuous stimulation needed for arousal, eyes usually closed
What is lethargy?
orientation X3 but slow vocalization, decreased motor skills
What is confusion?
alteration of perception of stimuli (time, then place, then person)
What is consciousness?
alertness with orientation to person, place and time
No correctable cause for seizures is found and seizures are recurrent without treatment, what is this?
Follows a generalized tonic-clonic seizure and they are sleepy, what is this?
What is the occurrence of second, third or multiple seizures before the person has fully regained consciousness from preceding seizure and causes cerebral hypoxia?
What are two age groups who have unclassified epileptic seizures?
neonatal seizures and infantile seizures
What happens in an atonic seizure?
What happens in a tonic-clonic seizure?
aura precedes and they're stiff and jerk
What happens in a tonic seizure?
muscle contraction with excessive muscle tone
What happens with a clonic seizure?
alternating contraction and relaxation of muscles
What are 5 different types of generalized seizures?
absence, clonic, tonic, tonic-clonic, and atonic
Bilaterally symmetric and without local onset, consciousness is always impaired or lost, what type of seizure is this?
Partial onset evolving into generalized tonic-clonic seizures, what is this called?
With impairment of consciousness, with to without automatisms, what type of seizure is this?
partial - complex
without impairment of consciousness, with motor signs, special sensory or somatosensory symptoms [prodroma] hours to days before seizure, autonomic symptoms and psychic symptoms, what type of seizure is this?
partial - simple seizure
begin locally, involve neurons unilaterally, what type of seizure is this?
What are seizures characterized by?
sudden transient alterations in brain function
Caused by abnormal excessive hypersynchronous discharges of CNS neurons, what is this?
What is death of cerebral hemispheres exclusive of brainstem and cerebellum?
What may the brain continue to do in cerebral death?
maintain cardiovascular and respiratory functions. Normal T control, and normal GI functions
When someone is permanently unable to respond in any way to environment, what has happened to them?
they have cerebral death
What is irreversible coma?
What do you have destruction of in brain death?
destruction of the brainstem and cerebellum
When irreversible brain damage allows no potential recovery and can no longer maintain respiratory and cardiovascular functions, what is this?
Brain death (brainstem death)
Why does someone with cerebral death still have a heart beat and is still breathing?
because is doesn't involve the brainstem and cerebellum
What is responsible for transmission of diffuse burning or aching sensations causing slow pain?