Neurobiology of psychotic illnesses

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Neurobiology of psychotic illnesses
2014-11-27 22:52:12
Schizophrenia mooddisorders Patho

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  1. psychotic illnesses? nonpsychotic illnesses?
    • Psych: Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders (Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorders)
    • Nonpsych: Anxiety disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders.
    • All have other subclasses.
  2. schizophrenia etiologies? pathophysiology? Clinical manifestations?
    • etiologies: chemical imbalance (dopamine and glutamate) -- the dopamine hypothesis: dopamine 1 and 2. -- genetic factors -- exposure to virus during gestation.
    • Patho: genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Changes in the hippocampus, temporal lobes, and dopamine pathways that go to the limbic system.
    • CM: Positive, negative, and cognitive¬† symptoms.
    • Positive symptoms: excessive Dopamine 2 (hallucinations, delusions, diorganized speech, etc)
    • Neg. Sym.: Mediated by dopamine 1 (loss of interest, social withdrawal, autism)
    • Cog. Symp: memory probs and inability to sustain attention.
  3. Major depression Disorder chrts? dysthymia? SAD? etiologies?
    • It is the most common mental disorder.
    • requires presence of multiple symptoms intense enough to cause distress and persistently impair psychosocial functioning.
    • Dysthymia: Depression w 1 or 2 symptoms that last 2 years or more. Pt can interact in society but is always down (half glass full type of pt)
    • SAD: It is a seasonal pattern (fall or winter) to depression.
    • Eti: Unknown -- neurobiological and psychosocial factors -- Norepinephrine and serotonin -- serotonin below normal or the ratio is altered. -- MRI demostrates it.
  4. Bipolar disorders chrts? types?  CM?
    • Alernating periods of mania and depression.
    • Depression episode: low energy, poor appetie, weight loss, decreased libido and thoughts of guilt and suicide.
    • Mania: Abnormally and persistantly elevated, expansive, or irritable mood. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity, can reach delusional proportions.
    • Bipolar I: at least one episode of mania as well as major depression.
    • Bipolar II: No episodes of mania and at least one episode of hypomania and major depression -- don't have Mania episodes and don't show strong signs as Bipolar I.
  5. anxiety disorders chrts? categories?
    • They are non-psychotic disorders -- characterized by irrational fears (probably related to seratonin).
    • 4 categories: Panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder.
  6. Panic disorder chs? causes? CM?
    • symptoms that are unexpected, sudden, recurrent, and generate intense feelings of fear.
    • Causes: excess of norepinephrine, family history, substance abuse, and major life stress.
    • CM: dyspnea, palpitations, chest discomfort, light-headedness, fainting, sweating, tremor, expressed fear of dying.
    • attacks may last 5 to 30 mins.
  7. Generalized anxiety disorder chts?
    • Moderate degree of anxiety w/o discrete periods of acute attacks.
    • Persistent worry may lead to multiple symptoms including fatigue, muscle tension, muscle pain, etc.
    • Need to rule out fibromialgia.
  8. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder chts? etiologies?
    • Obessive: are repeated, persistent, unwanted ideas, thoughts, images, and have a common theme.
    • Compulsive: are repetitive, ritualistic behaviors prevent or reduce anxiety related to obsessions.
    • Etio: Have something to do w serotonin.
  9. Psttraumatic Stress Disorder chts? Symptoms? new therapy?
    • Precipitated by a traumatic events.
    • Acute stress disorder occurs up to 1 month of the event, PTSD occurs beyond 1 month.
    • Symptoms: Intrusive symptoms like flashbacks, dreams, recurring thoughts abt the event.
  10. What are the neurodevelopmental Disorders?
    • Attention Deficit Activity Disorder.
    • Autism Spectrum Disorder.
  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder chrst? types? CM?
    • characterized by difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity.
    • types: predominantly hyperactive - impulsive behavior -- predominantly inattentive -- combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive.
    • CM: inattentive and hyperactivity.
  12. autism spectrum disorder chts? causes?
    • Social/communication deficits, fixated interests and repetitive behaviors.
    • Some intellectual problems (66-75E%)
    • Male predominance 4:1.
    • ideopathic -- no literature linking the disorder w immunizations.
  13. What are the personality disorders?
    • Inappropiate behavior withing a cultural context.
    • Borderline personality disorder.
    • Antisocial disorder.
  14. Borderline Personality Disorder chrts? causes? CM?
    • Dependent interpersonal relationships.
    • Pervasive instability in mood.
    • Causes: Unknown.
    • CM: intense, unstable, dependent relationships, self destructive behavior, panic when left alone. (ppl that r getting married all the time)
  15. Antisocial Diorder chts? causes? new links?
    • Lack of anxiety or guilt, cold-bloodedness, careless indifferences.
    • Men are 3:1.
    • Found in prison.
    • Environmental and possible genetic components.
    • Linked w ADHD.
  16. What are eating disorders?
    • Typically illnesses of young adult women.
    • Anorexia Nervosa.
    • Bulimia Nervosa.
  17. Anorexia Nervosa chts? CM?
    • Eating disorder characterized by excessive dietary restrictions, weight loss greater than 15%.
    • CM: amenorrhea, hypthermia, edema, hypotension, anemia.
    • Usually the cause of death is hypokalemia, which could cause a dysrhythmia.
  18. Bulimia Nervosa chts? causes?
    • Chracterized by episode of binging (eating to the excess)
    • laxative abuse.
    • May fall in normal range for age and weight but fear weight gain.
    • Behavior done secretly.
    • Causes: genetic, psychological, sociocultural.