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what are the disorders of hearing?
- Conductive hearing loss: Problem of conduction bt the external ear channal and the middle ear to the brain. -- otosclerosis, otitis media, and external otitis.
- Sensorineural hearing loss: maybe loss of high pitch sensory. -- Presbycusis, Meniere Disease, aging, diabetes mellitus, noise exposure.
Otosclerosis chts? etiologies? CM?
- Bone resorption is follow by overgrowth of new bone, which doesn't let sclerotic bone move and decrease in the transmission of sound to the inner ear.
- Etio: fixation of the stapedial.
- CM: Tinnitus, hearing loss, ppor speech discrimination.
Otitis Media chts? RF? types? CM?
- Usually is a result of an upper respiratory infection that goes up the estachian tube all the way to the middle ear, causing an infection.
- RF: pacifiers, GURD, daycare attendance, propped bottles.
- Types: Chronic and acute otitis.
- Chronic: its a chronic obstruction of the eustachian tube for prolonged periods of time.
- Acute: its the most common one. follows the pathogen entering the estachian tube ... the bigges prob is high pressure can damage the tympanic membrane.
- CM of CO: decreased hearing, snapping and popping, vertigo, pain.
- CM of AO: pain, pulling in the ear, fever, tenderness over mastoid area.
External otitis chts? etiologies? CM?
- "swimmer's ear". removing the cerumen is not so good, bc of the protective mechanism it does.
- Eti: Pseudomonas aerugenos (which can be detected by the smell), also fungi and trauma.
- CM: pain when touching tragus, white particles on sides of canal, etc.
Presbycusis chts? CM?
- Gradual onset, bilateral, and result in difficulty hearing high pitch tones and conversational speech.
- It is degenerative progressive disorder in older adults. It tends to be more gradual in women than men.
- CM: hearing loss, dizziness, inability to hear high-pitched sounds (but they do well w hearing aids).
Meniere disease chsts? CM?
- Chronic disorder of the inner ear.
- CM: Sudden vertigo that causes vomiting. The best thing to is to lay down and close ur eyes.
Vetigo and Dizziness? Balance?
- Vertigo: the room is going around. Usually a prob w the inner ear.
- Dizziness: u are going around.
- Balance: It is controlled by hair cells.
What are the disorders of Vision?
- Errors of refraction
- Strabismus and amblyopia
- retinal detachment
- Macular Degeneration
Errors of refraction chts? types?
- erros in the formation of the patterns of light in the cornea. Correctable w lenses.
- Types: Myopia, Hyperopia, presbyopia, and astigmatism.
- Myopia: Nearsightedness, unable to see distant images -- front of the retina -- Corrected w concave lenses.
- Hyperopia: Farsightedness -- behind the retina -- convex lenses.
- Presbyopia: Pathology of the aging -- lost of accomodative capacity.
- Astigmatism: Irregularity in the curvature of the cornea or lens -- Produces distorted image.
what is strabismus and amblyopia? chrts? causes?
- Strabismus: cross-eyedness -- cause is abnormal "set' of the fusion mechanism of the visual system.
- Amblyopia: Poor vision of one or both eyes despite optical correction. -- causes: untreated strabismus -- Tx: aropine or patching of the stronger eye.
Cataracts chts? causes? CM tx?
- It is the clouding or opacity of the lens, blurred vision, loss of sight.
- Causes: aging, trauma, congenital factors, metabolic disease, medications.
- CM: Blurred vision, decreased night vision, abnormal presence of light in the visual field, white opacity of the lens.
- Tx: surgical removal of the cataracts w replacement of the lens.
Retina detachment chts? causes? CM?
- Separation of the sensory layer of the retina from the choroid w sudden appearance of floating spots.
- Causes: tumors, inflammation, trauma, cataract extraction.
- Once having a detachments, have 50% more chances to get another one.
- CM: floaters, sense of veil coming down in visual field.
Diabetic Retinopathy chts? CM? prevention?
- It is a disorder of the retinal vessels. Formation of microaneurysms and hemorrhage, leakage and retinal detachment.
- CM: blurred, darkened, distorted vision; visual changes fluctuate.
- Preventive: Thigh glycemic control and careful monitoring.
Macula degeneration chts? causes? CM?
- Degeneration of the macular area of the retina w progressive loss of central vision.
- Causes: idippathic, injury, inflammation, nutritional, hereditary.
- CM: loss of central vision, yellow spots on macula, visual distortion.
- * amsler graft.
Glaucoma chts? types?
- increased intraocular pressure and progressive vision loss. It is not a preventable disease, but very well manage.
- Glaucoma causes blindness by pressure on the optic nerve.
- types: chronic open angle and acute angle closure.
- Chronic open-angle glaucoma: Intraocular pressure increased by a decrease in the outflow of aqueous humor. --CM: tunnel vision gradually. -- TX: beta adrenergic eyedrops and prostaglandin analogue eye drops.
- Acute angle narrow-closure glaucoma: Occurs when angle bt pupil and lateral aspect of cornea is narrow; total closure of the canal of schlemm. -- It is a medical emergency -- Tx: decrease intraocular pressure w carbonic anhydrate inhibitors, miotics. Laser iridectomy may be used.
- CM NAG: sudden onset of eye pain and impaired vision associated w pupil dilation.
Conjunctivitis chrts? causes?
- Inflammation of the conjunctiva.
- causes: viral, allergic, and bacterial.
- Viral: pts have clear drainage.
- Allergic: ppl w red eyes that use visine.
- Bacterial: usually caused by staphylococcus and it is highly contagious.
Smell and taste chts? nerves?
- It is chemical stimulation of specialized nerves fibers of the nose and mouth.
- Olfatory: smell; under frontal lobe.
- Gustatory: taste, parietal lobe.
Epistaxis chts? causes?
- Causes: anterior and posterior.
- Anterior: medication, drying, infection, trauma (90% common)
- Posterior: blood dyscrasisas, HTN, diabetes, trauma (it is more sever).
Sinusitis chts? causes? CM?
- Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses.
- If untreated can cause brain absesses.
- Ppl can develop polyps, which could cause obstruction.
- Causes: streptococcus.
- CM: pain in the sinuses, headache, fever, malaise, purulent discharge.