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What percentage of aviation accidents have significant “human” causal factors?
Name 5 inherent limitations of human vision in the aviation environment.
- The blind spot
- The time lag
- The seeing and focusing mechanism
- Empty visual field blindness
- Visual illusions
Why is it important to develop a scanning technique to maximise your LOOKOUT?
The process of looking, seeing, and recognising takes about 1½ seconds. Allowing for limited angle of accurate vision, and the time lag, the area to be scanned should be divided into 20° sectors, and allow sufficient time in each sector. Allowing for glare, luminance, and contrast, 2 seconds per 20° sector is recommended.
2 ways to combat empty visual field blindness?
- Periodically focus on a distant cloud or land feature
- Focus on the wing tip from time to time.
Name 4 effects of “g” forces on vision
- grey out
- tunnel vision
- loss of vision (“black out”)
Name 4 aspects of vision that will be affected by hypoxia
- Visual acuity (sharpness)
- peripheral vision
- colour perception
- visual brightness
Above what altitude should supplemental oxygen be used?
10,000 ft. or 8,000 ft if there for a long time.
Name 11 general symptoms and effects of hypoxia, other than relating to vision.
- Target fixation
- Personality changes
- Loss of judgement
- Fuzziness (not dizziness)
- Sensitivity to heat/cold
- Cyanosis (bluing of extremities)
- Unconsciousness and Death
Name 5 areas of the human body where gases can be trapped as an aircraft ascends / descends.
- Middle ear
What is the recommended method for unblocking Eustachian tubes on aircraft descent?
Swallowing, moving the jaw, or by using the valsalva manoeuvre.
Name the 3 elements of the balance and orientation systems of the human body.
- The visual system
- The “balance” organs
- The pressure/stretch/position nerve system
Why is motion sickness more common among passengers and trainee pilots than among experienced pilots?
- Prolonged unaccustomed motion upsets the orientation system.
- Aggravated by anxiety and low activity levels.
- Alleviated by gaining further air experience, reducing anxiety and building self-confidence.
List 5 precautions against heatstroke / heat stress.
- Drink plenty of fluids (not alcohol or caffein)
- Wear a hat
- Wear loose fitting clothing
- Wear sunproof clothing
- Keep cool by ventilation or shading.
List 13 symptoms of heat stress / heatstroke.
- Heat rash
- Headache / nausea (and vomiting)
- Dryness of mouth, nose and eyes
- General dehydration
- Poor concentration
- Slurred speech
- Confusion / Disorientation
- Collapse / death
What is the amount of fluid intake recommended for pilots flying on particularly hot days?
500 to 600 ml’s per hour.
Name 6 psychological traits of a ‘good’ pilot
- Common sense
- Adopts sound practices and high standards
- Confident, consistent, and calm
- Dependable with good decision-making skills
- Willing to assist others
- Stays out of trouble
List 3 impairments to proper mental performance
- Overload of activity or information
What is the major risk associated with overload of activity or information?
Load-shedding, resulting in some information or tasks being neglected.
Describe some direct stressors a glider pilot may experience.
Glare, turbulence, weather, time delays, unexpected mechanical or navigation problems, temperature extremes, dehydration, hypoxia, visual illusions, disorientation, fatigue, lack of fitness to fly, or ergonomic factors.
Describe some indirect stressors a glider pilot may experience.
Indirect stressors relate to personal, family or relationship problems, financial concerns, or job concerns.
7 ways to reduce stress.
- Keep physically fit and healthy
- Good lifestyle (eat, rest, relax, sleep)
- Stay within personal limits
- Think and plan ahead
- Be organised, prioritise, don't procrastinate
- Delegate and load shed
- Seek assistance where necessary
11 signs and symptoms of fatigue.
- Reduced vision
- Channelised attention
- Easily distracted, pre-occupied or forgetful
- Poor judgment
- Careless and risk-taking
- Lost sense of timing
- Poor coordination
- Slow reaction times
3 ways of dealing with fatigue.
- Resolve underlying workload or stress problems
- Adequate rest and sleep.
- Adopt stress management techniques
List 5 adverse medical factors for a glider pilot.
- Illicit drugs and alcohol
- Blood sugar levels (low & high)
- Colds and flu
- Hay fever
- Medication (side effects)
Name 6 effects alcohol would have on a pilot’s performance
- Increased susceptibility to “g” forces
- Increased susceptibility to hypoxia
- Increased susceptibility to DCS
- Interference with body temperature regulation
2 Reasons why flying with a cold is not recommended
- May prevent clearing the ears or sinuses.
- May cause headaches or other distracting symptoms.
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