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- which viruses?
ssDNA icosahedral; naked
Coinfects with adenovirus
highly immunogenic due to exposure many times
ds circular DNA; icosaheral; naked
- how many
- causes CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia)
- 34 varieties/ serotypes
wart/ chancres; domelike structures taht affect growth of epithelium; can be cross-linked; can coalesce and cause larger legions; cream-looking= large and unusual areas in AIDS case; flat warts are classic for kids
specific for what they cause (ex: if genital warts, only in the genital area)
Papovaviridae in general?
- warts (such as small genital warts)
- virus is only released when the warts break open
- flat lesions
- AIDS complicates the warts
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
- graded in scale of what?
- one to four
- I: minimal dysplasia; abnormal growth in spot of cervical growth
- II: moderate abnormal growth
- III: severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ; severe/ tumor at site
- IV: severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ
With CIN, what is unique about it?
usually mitosis is not visible in tissues. However, mitosis is visible in a section of epithelium in dysplasia; mitotic bodies
What is dysplasia?
abnormal cells not functioning properly
dsDNA; icosahedral; naked
Serotype A: no human disease/ highly immunogenic
Serotype B: not highly immunogenic; acute respitatory disease; pharyngitis; epidemic keratoconjunctivitis; acute hemorrhagic cystitis
adenovirus has giant spike proteins that allow entry
Adenovirus Serotype A
10% of all immunity in our body is directed twoards this type
Adenovirus Serotype B
- severe resp disease
- takes a while for monocytes to recruit helper B cells
- T cells take a while; doesn't start up interferon cascade
- Dependovirs (and Badenovirus) can coinfect with this
Explain acute hemorragic cystitis...
infection of the kidneys
dsDNA; icosahedral; naked
Hepatitis B Virus causes...
- acute and chronic hepatitis
- hepatocellular carcinoma
- immune complex disease
- causes a disease of gamma globulin (gammopathy)
Hep B mode of transmission
- the most common liver infection
- transmitted through blood and body fluid contact (direct contact with fluids, unprotected sex, unsterile needles, mother to newborn)
released into all body fluids via direct inoculation into discontinuous epithelium or into an individual
Hep B serious symptoms of acute part
- jaundice (autoimmune reaction where some hepatocytes are damaged; overload of bile; staining body cavities and swollen stomach)
- nausea and vomiting
- swollen stomach
Hepatitis B Virus
Acute Vs Chronic
most healthy adults (90%) who are infected with the hep B virus will recover and develop protective antibodies against future hep B infections
the opposite is true for children and adults; long incubation period and infected persons are able to pass the virus to others at this stage; bulk of kids get chronic
a person who has positive surface antibodies (HBsAg or anti-HBs) has recovered and is no longer contagious to others
Hepatitis B Virus
Acute Vs Chronic
If a person tests positive for the virus (HBsAg) for more than six months, they are chronically infected
Increased risk for cirrhosis (immune system destroys liver--> mush) and liver cancer
Two types of jaundice
- one caused by liver damage
- one caused by liver starting up (when born)
Hep B Virus
- how many types of hepatitis?
- affects whom?
100s exist; all species specific
Treatment can get rid of it. For people who are asymptomatic or don't get treated, they get serious issues--> hepatocellular carcinoma or liver can turn into jelly (glomerulonephritis)
only affects humans; for other animals, there are hep B for them
dsDNA; icosahedral; enveloped
- Herpes simplex (HSV-1; cold sores)
- Herpes simplex (HSV-2; genital herpes)
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)--> infectious mononucleosis; Burkitt's lymphoma; nasopharyngeal carcinoma
- Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV)
- Marek's Disease virus
Generalities of herpesviridae?
- infection rate?
- how to get infected?
- most cause?
over 90% of world is naturally infected by them; established long term latency in individual who is infected; stress reactivates them
direct inoculation from infected to non-infected individuals
most cause relatively harmless disease (not mortality)
Herpes simplex (HSV-1; cold sores)
- fever blisters or bump in mouth where gum reaches gumline
- most likely inoculated by relative
- rarely activates before 12
- back in CNS after activation
- cold sore
- > 90% of the world gest HSV-1
- viral reactivation during stress
- Whitlows can form: reinfection at site distal to lesions; non-oral presentation
- when it occurs in kids below twelve, they get eczema herpeticum
- Genital herpes (STD)
- pustule like lesions similar to those in HSV-1
- reactivation at times of stress (3-6 lesions)
- microchancres (so small; can invade other places)--> makes person slightly infective
mom with herpes simplex 2 can cause her child to get ocular HSV-2 or get eczema herpeticum at birth, leading to sloughing off of skin
- most frequently transmitted to a developing child before birth
- symptoms may range from moderate enlargement of the liver and spleen, loss of vision, mental retardation to fatal illness
- major cause of disease and death in immunocompromised patients, including organ transplant recipients, hemodialysis patients, cancer patients, immunosuppressive drug patients, and HIV patients; pneumonia, retinitis, and gastrointestinal disease are the common manifestations of disease
- likes which cells?
- most people are __
- for indivduals with active CMV, the child can undergo what?
- cells of immune system and nerves/ neural tissue
- CMV +
- teratogenic effects; low brain weight, etc.
causes which problems?
- infectious mononucleosis
- Burkitt's lymphoma
- Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
- chronic fatigue syndrome
**resolves within three months; some get 8 months)
- likes cells?
- release of what?
- what other effects?
- how to diagnose?
- some get what?
likes cells of epithelial origin and lymphocytes
release of cytokines --> extended chronic fatigue
myalgias/ short-term arthritic syndrome
- in two-three weeks, look at the blood (lymphocytes get huge vacuoles as they release lots of viruses)
- some get chronic fatigue
What does mono do to the:
- loss of appetite
What does mono do to the:
visual and tonsils?
reddening, swelling, white patches
What does mono do to the:
lymph nodes, respiratory, and spleen? ?
- spleen enlargement and ab pain
What does mono do to the:
stomach, systemic, and throat?
- chills, fevers, aches
- soreness, reddening
Explain Burkitt's Lymphoma.
- extra depositions of lymphatic tissue
- lymphocytes in areas that they should not be in
- functionally inactive
- fills up circulatory system with junk
two forms: sporadic (outside of Africa) and endemic (infections occurring in Africa)
symptom: enlargement of tissues of oral cavity
Explain nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
- the cancer grows into the sinuses or around the eye, cheek bone, cranial nerve, and hypopharynx
- tumor of epithelial cells in oral or nasal tract
- deformation of jaw/ nose as it metastasizes
Scoring of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
I and II: tumor and damage small--> hard to detect
- III: growth into sinueses/ infarct sinuses
- IV: eye involved; massive changes in sinuses and ears; metastasizes up cranial nerves
- ***virus can live 72 hours in adverse environment***
- ***virus gets in through discontnuous epithelium and sets up latency in trigeminal ganglion
- first presentation
- if over 18
- - chicken pox
- - pock marks cause discomfort (display nerves/ not much bleeding); filled with liquid, pus leaks out
- immunity builds from it; not much secondary or chronic
if over 18: shingles--trigeminal ganglion; sets up shop there
- Zoster presentation
- virus follows cranial nerves in variety of fashion
- body has a midline; people can get bilateral or unidirection
- extremely painful; nerves
Marek's Disease Virus
Neurolymphomatosis causes asymmetric paralysis of one or more limbs. Difficulty breathing or dilation of the crop may occur. Lymphomatous infiltration/tumors in the skin, skeletal muscle, visceral organs.
Acute Marek's disease is an epidemic in a previously uninfected or unvaccinated flock, causing depression, paralysis, and death in a large number of birds (up to 80 percent). The age of onset is much earlier than the classic form; birds are four to eight weeks old when affected. Infiltration into multiple organs/tissue is observed.
Ocular lymphomatosis causes lymphocyte infiltration of the iris, turning it gray, unequal size of the pupils, and blindness.
- complex capsid
- complex e/n
vaccinia and variola
cow pox; causes lesions on hands; shares similarities to variola
contract cowpow--> immune to smallpox.
- smallpox; first disease targeted for eradication by WHO (1920-1930)
- we are the only species that variola can infect
- incubation time: 4 days--> fever--> pox--> 5-6 days: fevers 105 degrees
- can bleed into themselves; coalesce to form larger entities
- kidneys, liver, etc. Organ dysfunction because its too hot
formation of papules adn them pustules. Day 6-7 is the fever peak
hypopigmentation of scars
ss+ RNA; icosahedral; naked
- enteric cytopathogenic human orphan (ECHO)
- coxsackie viruses
Generalities of Picornaviridae
- tiny viruses
- ability to survive outside host
- polio can freeze
- Hep A: can hold for 24 hours in bad situations
- targeted by WHO
- cutter vaccine
contaminated drinking water or through contact with contaminated surfaces; oral caity entry
- after passing through the stomach, the virus (capsid) establishes itself in the intestinal lining
- here the virus replicates and enters the bloodstream through the immune system
- once in the blood, it gains access to the nervous system, where the destruction of motor neurons results in paralysis
it undergoes transcytosis (goes in one side and out the other)
- infects Schwann cells and nerves
- causes paralysis, which also affects muscles adn leads to iron lung usage
Polio infection outcomes
- asymptomatic: ?
- minor illness: ?
- non-paralytic aseptic meningitis: ?
- paralysis: ?
- asy: 90-95%
- mino illness: 4-8%
- non-paralytic: 1-2%
- paralysis: 0.1-1%/ spinal polio: 79% of paralysis; bulbospinal: 19% of paralysis; bulbar: 2% of paralysis
- respiratory tract; mucous; only infections you're releasing to the environment
- the virus itself can?
- signs presentation?
the virus can survive in bizarre environments, such as high heat, salt, etc.
inflamation of liver, sweling of gut, jaundice; gas is secondary to fermentation
about 90%--> short-lived disease (3 months)
up to 24 day incubation period
people over age 9-10
- opposite true for kids due to function of liver
- high prevalence in Africa and Central America
Hep A clinical features
- •Jaundice by age group:
- –<6 yrs <10%
- –6-14 yrs 40%-50%
- –>14 yrs 70%-80%
- •Rare complications
- –Fulminant hepatitis
- –Cholestatic hepatitis
- –Relapsing hepatitis
- •Incubation period
- –Average 30 days
- –Range 15-50 days
- •No Chronic sequelae
ss+RNA; icosahedral; naked
Norwalk virus (gastroenteritis)
Norwalk virus (norovirus)
gastroenteritis; outbreak in 24-48 hours
CLASSIC PRESENTATION: acute-onset vomiting, watery non-bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps and nausea
- dehydration is the most common complication
- recovery is generally complete
- 'secondary renal dysfunction
- 10 day infection
no great immunity against them
- hardy outside the body (72 hours)
- small dose needed
dsRNA icosahedral naked
- coltivirus (CO tick fever)
- fecaloral route
- disease can be fatal in infants (causes pediatric diarrhea-- #1 cause)
mild to severe disease in adults
spread as kids slobber over each other and contaminate surfaces
2-3 days infection with severe diaarrhea; body weight drops 10-15%
- RNA icosahedral enveloped ss+
- Rubella (German measles)
- spread by respiratory droplets
- incubation 12-24 days
- generalized lymphadenopathy (swollen hot lymph nodes)
- diffuse, pink macular rash
- postnatal rubella arthritis
- little petechia and fever are problems
- affects interleukins from patients
ss+ RNA icosahedral enveloped
- in africa and south america
- mosquitos trannsmit
- flu-like symdrome--> severe hepatitis-->hemorrhagic fever
- virus in salivary glands
- 75-80% get flu-like syndrome
- 20% get hemmorhagi fever--> die due to internal injuries
remainder get hep
Hep C Virus
- inflammation of liver; chronic liver disease
- sets up latency (long term effects)
most common extrahepatic symptom is arthritis and crystallizaiton in joints
fatal in 3% of cases
ss+ RNA, helical, enveloped
Corona/ SARS/ MERS
resp tract disease causing distress and collapse due to gene alteration in cells in lungs
no gas exchange
can be aerosolized; do well in ventilation
ss+ RNA; helical; enveloped
- Rous Sarcoma Virus
- Feline leukemia virus
- Simian immunodeficiency virus
- HIV-1 and -2
- Human T-cell lymphoma virus (HTLV-1,2,3,4)
- all have an enzyme that is family of reverse transcriptase
- all set up latency for as long as they can (usually in immune system--> dysfunction)
- all can be complicated by other pathogens
oncogenic virus; systemic tumors of soft tissue origin; in chicken feces
Feline Leukemia virus
- acquires it as a little kitten; they get leukemia; affects IS
- the cells look like themselves, but don't function like it
- primate cousin of HIV
- blood borne pathogen
- evolutionary pressure
Superstrains of HIV
- latency is realyl short
- clinical phase is short
- death is rapid
- virus infection
-replication and gene expression
attacks CD4 helper T cell lymphocytes and other CD4 cells
- macrophages migrate into tissues. Gp120 is the glycoprotein that is expressed.
- This sets off CD8 and lymphocytes, which require CD4 for activation.
- the virus infects by binding of the virus to the CD4+ immune cells, first macrophages then lymphocytes (helper T-cells)
the glycoprotein 120 is expessed on those cells
the viral replication adn gene expression help induce cytopathologic effects in the CD4+ cells
CD8+ cells require CD4+ cells for activation
virus remains latent for up to 12 years
initial disease progression is a slight lowering of the CD4/CD8 ratio
Transmission of HIV-1
blood: sexual or clinical contact, transfusion, needle stick
Serum: clinical contact, needle stick
Associated diseases with HIV
- •Thrush/ Candidiasis
- •Pnuemicystis pneumonia
- •Herpes virus complications (all members)
- •HPV complications
- •Kaposi’s sarcoma
- •Cryptococcus infections
Human T Cell Lymphoma Virus
affects lymphocytes and CD8 cells
- establishes latency, no complication until activation, when rapid production of T cells takes place
- they look like T cells but don't function like them (don't kill things)
they overcrowd the lymphatic tissues, leading to physiological dysfunction
Flu: acute respiratory distress; neuaminidase; hemaglutinin
ss- RNA helical enveloped
- acute respiratory distress
- they have two key spike proteins: -neuraminidase: allows cleavage-hemaglutinin: allows association with the respiratory tract epithelium and RBC when systemic to avoid teh immune system can species jump
- mosaic viruses can form (viruses with he
What are the two features that can occur with the antigens?
What does it cause?
antigenic shift: development of hybrd viruses using different strands of H and N combos; massive number of new cases
antigenic drift: partial immunit against one but not both; can be both; not many new cases)
causes endemics (slight change) or pandemics (big changes)
mutates and host jumps
ss- RNA helical enveloped
- Rubeola (measles)
- Mumps virus
- Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
- Canine distemper virus
Humans are the only host
incubation: 10-14 days
early stages include broncioloitis
buccal "Koplik spots"
rash first appears around the temples
High fever with capillary leakage
- bad; splotchy rash; really high fever
- finestra (wndows between cells that let fluid and immune components go in and out resp system); fever with capillary leakage
they open to largest capacity and allow fluid loss to circulatory system, leading to thicker viscosity of blood, heart pumps harder, pressure increases, chainge in body chemistry, and maybe kidney failure
- causes bullneck
- high rever
1% of people get complications in this order:
- 1) deafness
- 2) pancreatitis (damage to cells that are insulin responsive and parenchyma)
- 3) meningitis
- 4) orchitis (inflammation of testicles)
glands of head and neck
not foam but salivary glands that pump out a lot of salt and protein
causes neurological problems: parkinsonian/ alzheimer like issues( some parts of CNS gone and replaced with microcysts)
people lost memory/ dementia
attacks control areas
virus itself is shed into salivary secretions; has to be deep wound inoculation; adn 70-100 capsids must be injected
ebola hemorrhagic fever
What are the forms of ebola?
- hemmorhagic fever
- sudan, bundibugyo, and zaire ebola: can infect humans and primates
Reston ebola can't infect humans; tries to, but it can't get in
- one person survived
- viral hemmorhagic fever
- biowarfare agent
- higher fever
- onset of bleeding is earlier