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A state that occur in response to an internal or external event
What are the 3 components of emotion
- 1) physiological= body arousal.
- 2) Cognitive= appraisal and interpretation of feelings and environment.
- 3) Behavioral= Body language, facial expresions
Who pioneered the study of emotion and facial expressions, and how many emotional expressions there are
- - Paul Ekman.
- 1) Anger.
- 2) Sadness.
- 3) Hapiness.
- 4) Surprise.
- 5) Fear.
- 6) Disgust.
What are the 3 ways to measure emotions.
- 1) Behavioral display:
- - Observe facial expresions and verbalexpressions of emotions
- 2) Self-reports of emotion.
- -Widely used but has low validity.
- 3) Psychological reactions:
- - Face electromyography.
- - Heart rate.
- - Skin conductance.
- - Startle reflex.
What are the functions of emotions
- 1. Cognitive functions
- - organize and retrieve memories
- - Aid in judgement and decision making.
- 2. Behavioral functions.
- - Emotions alter behaviors.
- - Action assist in survival
- 3. Social functions.
- - Relationship formation and maintenance.
- - Intimacy.
What are the 3 major theories of emotions
- 1. James-Lange.
- 2. Cannon-Brad.
- 3. Schachter and Singer's two-factor theory.
What the James-Lange theory proposes
Proposes that the emotion we feel results from bodily and behavioral responses to environmental stimuli, rather than causing those responses.
What the Cannon-bard theory proposes
The perception of an emotionally stirring event simultaneously sends messages to parts of the brain responsible for the subjective experience of emotion and physiological arousal.
What the Schachter and Singer two-factor theory proposes
Emotional state is a function of both physiological arousal and cognition.
Other 2 theories of emotion
- 1. Cognitive-mediational theory= Proposes that cognitive interpretations, particularly appraisals, of events are the keys to the experience of emotions.
- 2. Facial-feedback theory= holds that facial expressions that occur in response to stimuli provide feedback to the brain that helps to shape emotional experience
What do evolutionary theorists believe
That emotions have been passed down because of their role in survival of our species.
What the Lewis' cognitive theory of emotional development.
Theory that states that emotions unfold in infants as a consequence of neural and and cognitive development, with the most significant development achieved by the age of 3.
What the Izard's differential emotion theory states.
Emotions help to trigger cognitive development.
- develop form 0 to 6 months of age and this are:
- anger, happy, sad, surprise, disgust and fear
- Develop from 18 to 24 months and these are:
- Guilt, embarrassment, empathy and shame.
Old theory of emotions believed that
A collection of brain areas, collectively called the limbic system, play key roles in the experience of emotion.
New theory of aemotions
- Believes that emotional processes are controlled by multiple areas of the brain:
- - Amygdala= condition and recognizing fear.
- - Cerebral cortex.
Women often report being more emotionally expressive than men and experiencing emotions more intensely. These gender differences are highly inﬂuenced by
Cultural display rules
What are display rules
Cultural expectations regarding the expression of emotions for men and women
Are facial expressions different or consistent across cultures
They are consistent.
Anxiety disorders are
- - phobias.
- - Generalized anxiety disorder.
- - Panic disorder.
- - Obsessive compulsive disorder:
- 1- compulsions= rigid, repetitive behaviors.
- 2- Obsessions= persistent thoughts, ideas.
What are disorders of emotion:
- - Emotional clarity: alexithymia= inability to identify or describe emotions.
- - Attention to emotions: Hypervigilance= paying to identify or describe emotions.
- - emotional intensity: antisocial personality disorder= experience little or no anxiety or guilt as a result of their acions.
- - Regular emotions: borderline personality disorder= severe inability to regulateintense emotions.
- - Depression= Feel overwhelmed by life's challenges and sad.
- - Mania= Euphoric state, Frenzied energy.
- - Major depressive disorder.
- - Bipolar disorder
Positive psychology is
- The study of happiness and other positive emotions.
- - feelings= optimism.
- - traits= wisdom.
- - abilities= skills.
- - virtues= tolerance
What are the 2 main physiological pathways of stress
- 1- sympathetic nervous system
- 2- Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
what is stress
- a state brought by situations that threaten, or appear threaten, well-being.
- 1. acute.
- 2. chronic.
- 1. frustration.
- 2. pressure.
- 3. conflicted.
social readjustment rating scale
- - 150 or less= little
- - 150-199= mild
- - 200-299= moderate.
- - over 300= major
Who coined the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) and what are its stages
- Hans Selye and its stages are:
- 1- alarm
- 2- resistance
- 3- exhaustion
What are the two types of appraisal
- - Primary= assess severity,identify the stressor as a threar, a challenge, or a loss or harm.
- - Secondary= Evaluate our own resources and ability to cope with threat, challenge, or loss.
What is coping and what are its 4 styles
- coping is the effort to manage, reduce or tolerate stress and the 4 dif styles are:
- - Lashing
- - Self-defense
- - Self indulgence
- - Constructive strategies;
- 1 problem-focused.
- 2 emotion-focused.
Problem-focused coping is
Efforts are aimed at dealing directly with the stressor in some way
try to change how we feel toward the stressor, thus limiting their negative effects
stress and health personalities
- - Type a= high in hostility
- - Type b= more relaxed.
An area of study examining the links among stress, the immune system, and health.
an optimal level of stress that promotes the development of resilence and facilitate performance
What is abnormal Psychology and what are the 4 ds
- Scientific study of psychological disorders .
- - Deviance
- - Distress
- - Dysfunction
- - Danger.
What's DMS (Manual of Mental Disorders)
It's the leading clasification system, which is a manual used to diagnose mental disorders, providing a list of all 400 mental disorders.
What is diagnosis
is the action of identifying a disorder by its symptoms and other evidence.
when someone has 2 or more disorders present.
How do Clinicians arrive at a diagnosis
- - clinical interviews
- - clinical test.
- - clinical observations:
- 1 analog; in clinical environment.
- 2 naturalistic; in everyday environment.
- 3 self-monitoring
what are the models of abnormality
- 1 Neuroscience= structural or biochemical malfunction.
- 2 Psychodynamic= unconscious conflicts.
- 3 Cognitive-behavioral=mix of conditioning modeling and cognitive principles.
- 4 Humanistic (Carl Rogers)= distorted views of self personal growth
- 5 sociocultural= social and familiar pressures or conflicts.
- 6 Developmental psycopathology= risk factors combined with poor resilience through life stages.
Key feature in mood disorders
- - Depression= Low sad state.
- - Mania= Elation and frenzied energy.
Major depressive disorders show symptoms in which 5 areas of functioning
- - Emotional= depressed mood.
- - Motivational= no desire to do activities.
- - Behavioral= less active.
- - Cognitive= negative
- - Physical= headaches, indigestion, pain, sleep.
Whats bipolar disorder
dissorder in which the affected experiences the lows of depression and the highs of mania.
What are the explanations for bipolar disorder
- - Gene abnormalities.
- - Irregularities in ions that allow neurons to communicate.
- - Stress.
- - Life events.
What type of disorder is the most common in the US and what are its key features
- - Anxiety disorders.
- 1 - Disables levels of fear or anxiety.
- 2- most people have 2 or more anxiety disorders.
What are the key features in generalized anxiety disorder
- - Anxiety under most life circumstances.
- - Restless.
- - Difficult concentrating.
Explanation for generalized anxiety disorders
- - Neuroscientist= Malfunctioning of GABA feedback and malfunctioning of emotional brain circuit.
- - Cognitive-behavioral= dysfunctional assumptions (assumption that one is in danger)
who experience social anxiety disorders the most and what are its key features
- more women than men experience it.
- key symptoms include:
- - severe, persistent fear.
- - may be narrowed or broad ( talking in public)
which theorist explain social anxiety disorder.
what are the key features of phobias and its explanation
- - Persistent, irrational fear to a specific, object activity or situation.
- 1 clasically conditioned.
- 2 modeling of fearful behavior.
Key features of panic disorder and its explanations:
- - panic attacks.
- - changes in thinking or behavior.
- - malfunctioning of brain circuit.
- - misinterpretation of bodily sensations.
key features of obsessive-compulsive disorder and its explanations.
- - obsessions
- - compulsions.
- - neuroscientist= low seretonin
- - cognitive-behavioral
Key features of post traumatic stress disorder and what causes it
- - Persistent depression, anxiety after traumatic event: can be acute= (ASD) last more than a month= PTSD
- - What causes PTSD= Psichologically traumatic events like rape, combat or natural disasters.
Schizophrenia has 3 kind of symptoms:
- 1- Positive:
- - delusions= false belief
- - hallucinations= false sensory reception
- - disorganized thinking and speech.
- - inappropriate affect.
- 2- Negative symptoms:
- - poverty of speech.
- - flat affect.
- - loss volition.
- - social withdrawal.
- 3- psychomotor symptoms.
- - strange movements
- - catatonia.
explanation of schizopphrenia
- 1- Neuroscientist:
- - Genetic predisposition.
- - Biochemical abnormalities.
- - Brain structure= enlarged ventricles
- 2- Diathesis-stess model:
- Biological predisposition plus negative event.
Somatoform disorders are
Physical complaint that is psychological in origin
Dissociative disorders are:
Major disruptions in memory
Personality disorders are
Rigid patterns of experiences and behavior.
types of treatments in today's world
- -Psychotherapies= use words and acts to overcome psychological difficulties.
- - Biological therapies= Drugs and psychological interventions such as surgeries.
what is used to treat depression by sending electrical current though the brain
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
- - focus on past emotional trauma.
- several types:
- 1- psychoanalysis
- 2- short-term psychodynamic therapy(one problem at the time)
- 3- relational psychoanalytic therapy>
- 1- free association
- 2- Therapist interpretation
- 3- Catharsis
- 4- Working through
What's the goal of Elli's rational-emotive therapy
The goal is to identify irrational assumptions that lead to disordered emotional and behavioral responses.
Beck's cognitive therapy
- - widely used for depresion.
- - apply alternative ways of thinking.
second-wave cognitive behavioral therapies
- - recognizes problematic thoughts as just thoughts
- - Clients accept thoughts rather tha try to eliminate them.
- -humanist= we are all born with the tools to fulfill our potential.
- - existentialists= accept responsibility for our lives and choices
What are the forms of therapy
- -individual= one on one
- - group= several clients with similar problems.
- - family = whole family.
- - couple= 2 people in a relationship.
- - community