Ch 18 Intro-.1,.2

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Ch 18 Intro-.1,.2
2014-11-29 20:18:33
Test Four
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  1. ·         Because __ phosphorylation keeps the recycling going
    ·         The electron flow in oxidative phosphorylation takes place in __ that are embodied in the __, called the __
    o   The overall reaction is __
    • we need a large amount of ATP, oxidative
    • four large protein complexes
    • inner mitochondrial membrane
    • ETC
    • exergonic
  2. o   Three of the complexes of the ETC use energy released by __. Energy is __.
    §  The resulting unequal distribution of protons generates a __ and a __ that creates a __. ATP is synthesized when?
    • the electron flow to pump protons from the mitochondrial matrix into the cytoplasm.
    • transformed

    pH gradient and a transmembrane electrical potential

    protn-motive force

    protons flow back to the mitochondrial matrix through an enzyme complex
  3. ·         Thus, the __ and __ are coupled by a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
    o   Collectively, the generation of __by the CAC, their flow through the respiratory chain, and the accompanying synthesis of ATP is called __ 
    oxidation of fuels and the phosphorylation of ADP

    high-transfer-potential electrons 

    respiration or cellular respiration
  4. ·         The purpose of the CAC is to __; and oxidative phosophorylation converts the __ into __
    ·         Mitochondria have an __ and an __ with folds called __
    • generate high-energy electrons
    • energy of these electrons into ATP
    • outer membrane
    • inner membrane with folds called cristae
  5. o   There are two compartments: __; and, there’s the __, which is bounded by the inner membrane
    §  The __is the site of most of the reactions of the __ and __
    §  Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in the __ due to __, which provide more sites for the ETC
    • the intermembrane space between the outer and inner membranes
    • matrix
    • matrix 
    • CAC and fatty acid oxidation
    • membrane due to cristae
  6. o   the outer membrane is __ because it contains many copies of mitochondrial __, called __
    §  __plays a role in the __—usually anionic species like phosphate, chloride, etc.—across the outer membrane
    o   The inner membrane is __to nearly all ions and polar molecules
    • permeable to most small molecules and ions
    • porin
    • VDAC< for voltage-dependent anion channel

    • VDAC 
    • regulated flux of metabolites

  7. ·         A large family of transporters shuttles metabolites like __(3)__ across te inner mitochondril membrane
    o   The two faces of this membrane are the __ and __, or __ and __ sides because the membrane potential is __on the matrix side, but __on the cytoplasmic side
    ·         In prokaryotes, the __ and __ are on the __, the inner of two membranes. The outer membrane of bacteria is __
    • ATP, pyruvate, and citrate
    • matrix side and the cytoplasmic side
    • N and P
    • negative 
    • positive 
    • electron-driven proton pumps and ATP synthesizing complex
    • cytoplasmic membrane
    • permeable
  8. ·         Proof of endosymbiosis:
    • - mitochondria have their own DNA, which encodes proteins and RNA; and, they have proteins encoded by nuclear DNA
    • - the double-membrane circular DNA and mitochodrial-specific transcription and translation
    • -Richettsia prowazekki as the most mitochondrial like bacterial genome
  9. o   The evidence that modern mitochondria result from a single event comes from examination of the __, which contains 97 genes, of which 62 specify proteins
    §  Mitochondrial genomes have a small fraction of bacterial genes—__%
    • most bacteria-like mitochondrial genome, that of the protozoan Reclinomonas Americana
    • 2
  10. ·         Primary function of CAC: __
    o   In oxidative phosphorylation, electrons from __ and __ are used to __
    §  The highly __ reduction of molecular oxgen by NADH and FADH2 is accomplished by a number of __, which take place in a set of membrane proteins known as the __
    • generate NADH and FADH2 by oxidizing acetyl CoA
    • NADH and FADH2
    • reduce molecular oxygen to water
    • exergonic
    • electron-transfer reactions
    • ETC
  11. ·         In oxidative phosphorylation, the electron-transfer potential of NADH or FADH2 is converted into the __
    o   Te measure of phosphoryl-transfer potential is __ for the __
    §  The corresponding expression for the electron-transfer potential is __, the __
    • phosphoryl-transfer potential of ATP
    • dGo’
    • hydrolysis of the activated  phosphoryl compound
    • E’0
    • reduction potential (redox potential)
  12. ·         The __ is an electrochemical concept; and, __ exist
    o   The reduction potential can be determined by doing what?
    §  The __ consists of an electrode immersed in a solution of 1 M oxidant and 1 M reductant 
    • reduction potential
    • redox couples

    • measuring the electromotive force generated by an apparatus called a sample half-cell connected to a standard reference half-cell
    • sample half-cell
  13. ·         The __ consists of an electrode immersed in a 1 M H+ solution that is in equilibrium with H2 gas at 1 atm of pressure
    ·         The electrodes are connected to a __, and an __ allows ions to move from one half-cell to the other, establishing __ between the half-cells. Electrons then flow from one-half cell to the other through the wire connecting the two half-cells to the voltmeter.
    • standard reference half-cell
    • voltmeter
    • agar bridge
    • electrical continuity
  14. o   Electrons flow from the __ to the __, and the sample-cell electrode is __with respect to the standard-cell electrode
    §  The __ of the X; X- couple is the observed voltage at the start of the experiment
    §  The __ of the H+: H2 couple is defined to be 0 volts
    • sample half-cell to the standard reference half-cell
    • negative 
    • reduction potential
    • reduction potential
  15. ·         In oxidation-reduction reactions, the donor of electrons, in this case X, is called the __, whereas the acceptor of electrons, H+ here, is called the __
    • reductant or reducing agent
    • oxidant
  16. ·         A negative reduction potential means what?
    ·         A positive reduction potential means __
    ·         A strong reducing agent is poised to __ and has a __, whereas a strong oxidizing agent is ready to __ and has a __
    that the oxidized form of a substance has lower affinity for electrons than does H2, as in the preceding example

    that the oxidized form of a substance has higher affinity for electrons than does H2

    • donate electrons
    • negative reduction potential
    • accept electrons
    • positive reduction potential
  17. ·         The standard free-energy change dGo’ is related to the change in reduction potential dE’0 by
    o   dGo’ = -nFdE’­0­
    §  n is the number of electrons transferred; F is a __, dE’0 is in volts, and dGo’ is in kj or kc per mole
    o   the free-energy change of an oxidation-reduction reaction can be readily calculated from the __
    • proportionality constant called the faraday
    • reduction potentials of the reactants
  18. ·         the driving force of oxidative phosphorylation is the __. The release of free energy is substantial.
    o   The released energy for __ is used to __ that is then used for the __ and __
    electron-transfer potential of NADH or FADH2 relative to that of O2.

    • hydrolysis of ATP
    • generate a proton gradient
    • synthesis of ATP and the transport of metabolites across the mitochondrial membrane
  19. ·         The __ for a species moving fromone side of a membrane where it is at concentration c1 to the other side where it is at a concentration c2 is given by
    o   dG=RTln(c2/c1)+ ZFdV
    §  Z is the __ and dV is the __
    ·         Under typical conditions for the inner mitochondrial membrane, the pH outside is __ than inside and the membrane potential is __, the outside being __.
    • free-energy change
    • electrical charge of the transported species
    • potential in volts across the membrane
    • 1.4 units lower
    • 0.14 V
    • positive