Chapter 19

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Chapter 19
2010-08-05 00:21:12


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  1. Bretten Woods Agreement
    international financial agreement signed shortly before the end of WWII that created the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund
  2. Bush Doctrine
    policy advocated by President George W. Bush of using preemptive military action against a perceived threat to U.S. interests
  3. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
    • executive agency responsible for collection and analysis of information and intelligence about foreign
    • countries and events
  4. Collective Security
    concept that peace would be secured if all countries collectively opposed any country that invaded another
  5. Containment
    strategy to oppose expansion of Soviet power , particularly in Western Europe and East Asia, with military power, economic assistance, and political influence
  6. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
    confrontation that nearly escalated into war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union over Soviet deployment of medium-range ballistic missiles in Cuba
  7. Department of Defense
    chief executive branch department responsible for formulation and implementation of U.S. military policy
  8. Department of Homeland Security
    cabinet department created after the 9/11 attacks to coordinate domestic U.S. security efforts against terrorism
  9. Department of State
    chief executive-branch responsible for formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign policy
  10. Détente
    relaxation of tensions between the U.S. and Soviet Unions that occurred during the 1970’s
  11. Embargo Act
    passed by Congress in 1807 to prevent U.S. ships from leaving U.S. ports for foreign ports without the approval of the federal government
  12. Engagement
    policy implemented during the Clinton administration that the United States would remain actively involved in foreign affairs
  13. Enlargement
    policy implemented during the Clinton administration that the United States would actively promote the expansion of democracy and free markets throughout the world
  14. Human Rights
    belief that human beings have inalienable rights such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion
  15. International Governmental Organization (IGO)
    created by the governments of at least two and often many countries that operates internationally with the objectives of achieving the purposes that the member countries agree on.
  16. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    • international governmental organization created shortly before the end of WWII to stabilize international
    • financial relations through fixed monetary exchange rates.
  17. Isolationism
    a national policy of avoiding participation in foreign affairs
  18. Joint Chiefs of Staff
    advisory body to the president that includes chief of staff of the army, chief staff of the air force, chief staff of naval operations, and marine commandant
  19. League of Nations
    created in the peace treaty that ended WWI, it was an international governmental organization dedicated to preserving peace
  20. Manifest Destiny
    theory that the United States was divinely mandated to expand across North America to the Pacific Ocean
  21. Marshall Plan
    European Recovery Program, named after the Secretary of State George C. Marshall, of extensive U.S. aid to Western Europe after WWII
  22. Military-Industrial Complex
    grouping of U.S. armed forces and defense industries
  23. Monroe Doctrine
    President James Monroe’s pledge that the U.S. would oppose attempts by European states to extend their political control into the Western Hemisphere
  24. Moralism
    policy of emphasizing morality in foreign affairs
  25. Multilateralism
    U.S. foreign policy that actions should be taken in cooperation with other states after consultation
  26. National Security Agency (NSA)
    intelligence agency responsible for gathering intelligence from electronic and other sources and for code breaking
  27. National Security Council (NSC)
    executive agency responsible for advising the president about foreign and defense policy and events
  28. 9/11 Commission
    national commission on terror attacks upon the U.S., a bipartisan, independent group authorized by Congress and President Bush in 2002 to study the circumstances surrounding the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, including preparedness and response
  29. Nongovernmental Organization (NGO)
    an organization that is not tied to a government
  30. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
    agreement that promotes free movements of goods and services among Canada, Mexico, and the United States
  31. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    1st peacetime military treaty the United States joined, NATO is a regional political and military organization created in 1950's
  32. Pearl Harbor
    naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japan on December 7, 1941, initiating U.S. entry into WWII
  33. Powell Doctrine
    an all-or-nothing approach to military intervention advocated by Colin Powell: use overwhelming force for quick, decisive victory, and have an exit strategy before any intervention
  34. Pragmatism
    policy of taking advantage of a situation for national gain
  35. Reagan Doctrine
    policy that the United States would provide military assistance to anti-communist groups fighting against pro-Soviet governments
  36. Roosevelt Corollary
    concept developed by President Theordore Roosevelt early in the twentieth century that it was the United States responsibility to assure stability in Latin American and the Caribbean
  37. Taliban
    fundamentalist Islamic government of Afghanistan that provided terrorist training bases for Al-Qaeda
  38. Tariffs
    taxes on imports used to raise government revenue and to protect infant industries
  39. Truman Doctrine (1947)
    United States policy initiated in 1947 of providing economic assistance and military aid to countries fighting against communist revolutions or political pressure
  40. Unilateralism
    national policy of acting without consulting others
  41. United Nations
    an international governmental organization created shortly before the end of WWII to guarantee the security of nations and to promote global economic, physical, and social well-being
  42. VietNam War (1965-1973)
    United States deployed up to 500,000 troops to Vietnam to try to prevent North Vietnam from taking over South Vietnam; the effort failed and was extremely devisive with the United States
  43. World Bank
    international governmental organization created shortly before the end of the WWII to provide loans for large economic development projects
  44. World Trade Organization (WTO)
    international government organization created in 1955 that manages multilateral negotiations to reduce barriers to trade and settle trade disputes