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The art of speaking or writing effectively.
A speaker’s respectability, trustworthiness, and moral character. (credibility)
- * Knowledge, experience, and wisdom with respect to the topic.
- * Integrity and virtue.* Goodwill toward the audience.
Which of the 3 forms of rhetorical proof is the most important?
Ethos: it drives people’s behaviors most often.
Listeners’ emotions (emotional appeals)
: happiness, love, excitement
- * Most effective at changing attitudes and opinions
- Negative emotions: fear, guilt, disgust, anger, sadness.
* Most effective at changing behavior
Listeners’ ability to reason (reasoning)
Looking for strong, clear arguments that we believe can be proven
Two views of Computer-mediated Communication (CMC)
- Media deficit approach: Media is less effective than face-to-face communication
- Media augmentation approach: Media can augment our FtF communication
Assumes some forms of CMC lack ability to carry non-verbal cues.
Media deficit approach: filtering
People experience intimacy in nonverbal cues, which is void in CMC.
- Media deficit approach: Social-presence theory
- (though we can use emoticons etc.)
CMC does not allow for the sharing of emotional content.
Media deficit approach: Media richness theory
Messages are sent and received at different times.
Media deficit approach: asynchronisity
Media can augment our FtF (Face-To-Face) communication.
Media augmentation approach: more connected
CMC supplements FtF
media augmentation approach
The more people who are connected to each other, the more intensely they are to communicate.
media augmentation approach: Social network theory
May benefit communication by giving each person time to craft a response.
media augmentation approach: asynchronicity