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What is the diff between diplopia and confusion?
- Diplopia - seeing one object in 2 diff places
- Confusion - seeing 2 diff objects in the one place
Why is strab a problem?
- suppression if infantile
- intermittent- asthenopia sx, diplopia
- lack of stereo
Adv of treating strab?
- improve cosmesis
- improve bv and stereo
- relief of sub sx
Disad of treating strab?
- occlusion amb/strab
- intractable diplopia
- poor surgical results
- rare- death during surgery
Disad of treating amb?
occlusion amb which is very difficult to treat
When does suppression occur?
- during infancy and plastic ages
- only when both eyes are stimulated
What are the 5 associated conditions with amb?
- 1. Strab amb
- 2. Aniso amb
- 3. bilateral Iso amb
- 4. image degredation
- 5. Astig amb (uni/bi)
Features of strab amb?
- cortical inhibition of input deviating eye
- spatial judgements abnormal
- grating > letter VA (crowding)
- decreased central CS at high SF
Features of aniso amb?
- Due to form deprivation and poor BV interaction
- spatial judgements normal
- grating = letter VA
- CS losses all over retina at all SF
Features of iso amb?
- same rx in OU
- usually uncx astig cf high myp/hyp
- often VA improves over time with rx
What are some causes of image degredation/visual deprivation?
- congenital cataracts
- corneal opacities
- complete ptosis
- occlusion amb
Other features of amb?
- LP normal
- cortical pathways dorment rather than destroyed
- CV normal
What is horror fusionis?
- sensory adaptation to strab
- inability to superimpose 2 targets/fuse
- when targets approach each other, they seem to jump to the other side