Lab Animal Final.txt

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Hfowler51
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Lab Animal Final.txt
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2014-12-01 10:50:48
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  1. Regarding anesthesia and analgesia according to the AWA
    • Procedures involving animals will avoid or minimize discomfort, distress and pain
    • Painful procedures will be performed with appropriate sedatives, analgesic or anesthetics
  2. NIH guideline to anesthesia and analgesia
    An integral component of veterinary medical care is the prevention or alleviation of pain associated with procedural and surgical procedures
  3. A reversible state characterized by the loss of sensation or feeling
    Anesthesia
  4. loss of feeling or sensation in one part of the body
    Local Anesthesia
  5. a state of unconsciousness with absence of pain sensation over the entire body
    general anesthesia
  6. loss of sensation in an anatomical area supplied by a particular nerve (epidural)
    Regional anesthesia
  7. This is referred to as the decreased perception of pain without the loss of consciousness
    analgesia
  8. This is the state of calmness without the loss of consciousness
    sedation/tranquilization
  9. This is the localized sensation of discomfort resulting from the stimulation of specialized nerve endings
    Pain
  10. Criteria for anesthetic method selection: (SAWTHOP)
    • Species
    • Age
    • Weight
    • Type of procedure to be done
    • Health
    • Objectives of the research protocol
    • Previous drug administration
  11. 3 steps to pre-operative care
    • Acclimate animal (5-7 days)
    • Physical exam (tpr), bloodwork
    • Fasting dependent upon species
  12. 2 parasympatholytic agents in pre-anethesia
    Atropine (except in rabbit) and glycopyrrolate
  13. parasympatholytic functions for pre-anesthesia
    reduce secretions and intestinal motility
  14. When should pre-anesthetic parasympatholytic agents be given?
    30-45 minutes prior to anethesia
  15. 3 tranqulizers/sedatives used in pre-anethesia
    • Valium
    • Acepromazine maleate
    • Xylazine
  16. Purpose of tranquilizers/sedative in pre-anesthesia
    • minimize stress of being restrained
    • reduces the amount of general anesthetic agent needed
  17. 2 inhalation methods
    • open drop method
    • calibrated vaporizer
  18. 3 topical local/regional agents
    • cetacaine
    • proparacaine
    • lidocaine
  19. 2 injectable local/regional agents
    • lidocaine
    • bupivicaine (marcaine)
  20. What is the difference between local and regional anesthesia?
    • local is infiltration of the agent at the site
    • regional is infiltration of the agent around the nerve or spinal cord segment supplying the area
  21. 2 Injectable General Anesthetic agents
    • Ketamine - dissociative used with other agents
    • Pentobarbital - barbiturate that depresses the CNS
  22. 2 Inhalant Anesthetic agents
    • Isofluorane - quick induction/recovery, poor analgesia and muscle relaxation
    • Nitrous oxide - gas at room temp, not capable of anesthesia by itself, good analgesia and muscle relation
  23. 4 ways of Monitoring Analgesia
    • reflexes
    • jaw tone (except rabbits)
    • heart rate
    • respiration
  24. 2 ways of Monitoring Anesthesia: Heart
    • rate and rhythm
    • support with adequate fluids and correct anesthetic dose
  25. 3 ways of Monitoring Anesthesia: Respiration
    • rate and depth
    • Ensure proper positioning
    • Periodic or continuous assisted ventilation (longer procedures)
  26. 2 ways of Monitoring Anesthesia: Body Temperature
    • rectally or esophageal
    • Support with external heat, warm fluids and coverings to minimize heat loss
  27. 2 ways of Monitoring Anesthesia: Fluid status
    • Fluid loss monitored by MM/CRT
    • Support loss by replacing - 3x volume lost: hetastarch, whole blood, plasma
  28. 4 Facial Grimace: Rodents
    • Eyes squinted
    • Ears rotated outward
    • Cheek muscles contracted
    • Whiskers on end
  29. 5 Acute signs of pain:
    • Increase heart rate
    • abnormal respiration
    • vocalization
    • muscle tensing (splinting)
    • facial grimace
  30. 7 Chronic signs of pain
    • any of the acute signs plus:
    • reluctance to be handled
    • not eating/drinking - weight loss
    • glazed eyes
    • hyperthermia
    • grating of teeth
    • guarding
  31. What are the agents of choice for post-operative pain?
    narcotics
  32. Agents used to control pain due to disease state or mild procedures:
    non-narcotics
  33. Drugs that minimize pain locally/regionally
    lidocaine and bupivicaine
  34. Transdermal drug that minimizes pain systemically:
    Fentanyl
  35. Injectable drugs that minimize pain systemically:
    butorphanol, buprenorphine, morphine, meloxicam, carprofen, ketoprofin
  36. 4 Oral drugs that minimize pain systemically:
    aspirin, ibuprofen, carprofen, meloxicam
  37. 5 Non-drug methods that minimize pain:
    • Positioning
    • Bandaging
    • Caging
    • Acclimating (to cage before surgery)
    • Warm environment
  38. This is the physical environment of the secondary enclosure (room, bar, outdoor habitat)
    Macroenvironment
  39. This is the immediate physical environment surrounding the animal (cage, pen, stall)
    Microenvironment
  40. This type of facility is where the animal housing and use is not the sole use of space or is physically separated from support areas.  (favorite of researchers)
    decentralized
  41. This type of facility is where the support, care and use areas are adjacent to the animal housing.
    Centralized
  42. 5 advantages of a centralized facility?
    • cheaper
    • efficient flow
    • less duplication
    • less transport
    • greater biosecurity and security
  43. Why is recycled air not recommended by the "Guide"?
    There is a potential to spread aerosolized contagions
  44. What is the humidity recommendation of the "Guide"?
    30-70%
  45. What is the air exchange rate recommended by the "Guide"?
    10-15/hour in the animal rooms
  46. these types of cages have force filtered air which decreases ammonia build up
    ventilated microenvironments
  47. These types of cages are usually filtered but have no forced air
    static microenvironments
  48. What does HVAC stand for?
    Heat Ventilation Air Conditioning
  49. What does GFCI stand for and where is it used?
    Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter and it is used in aquatic holding facilities
  50. 4 Requirements for Aquatic holding facilities:
    • Drains
    • All surfaces impervious to water
    • Slip-resistant floors
    • Material should be moisture and corrosion resistant and non-toxic
  51. This refers to a surgery that penetrates or exposes a body cavity or produces substantial impairment of physical or physiologic function
    Major
  52. This refers to a surgery that does not expose a body cavity and cause little or no physical impairment.
    minor
  53. This refers to a surgery that the animal is expected to recover.
    Survival surgery
  54. This refers to a surgery where the animal is euthanized once the procedure is performed.
    Non-survival surgery
  55. What are the 2 main differences between rodent and non-rodent surgical guidelines?
    • Non-rodent surgery requires the use of a gown/mask/cap/shoe covers
    • Non-rodent surgery must be set aside in a separate facility with no other activity
  56. What are the 3 important advantages of a centralized vs. a non-centralized large animal surgical facility?
    • Cost saving on equipment
    • Conservation of space, personnel and resources
    • Enhanced professional oversight
  57. 6 Large animal facility must haves:
    • Construction in materials impervious to moisture and easily sanitized
    • Scavenging System
    • Centralized storage and supplies
    • Autoclave and scrub sinks located near OR
    • OR and pre-op adjacent to OR
    • Post-Op recovery area
  58. 4 parts Surgery: Veterinarian Role
    • member of IACUC
    • indepth knowledge of research protocols
    • work closely with researcher re: protocols/refinement
    • provide support to the veterinary technician
  59. 4 parts Surgery: Veterinary Technician Role:
    • provide anesthesia - support and monitoring
    • provide non-sterile surgery support
    • compliance monitoring
    • surgical facility maintenance
  60. 4 parts Veterinary Technician Clinical Role:
    • Post-operative management
    • Health rounds, patient records management and treatments
    • Sample collection and subsequent labwork
    • Manage preventative health programs
  61. 3 parts Surgery: Research Staff Role:
    • Research related manipulations
    • Collection of research data
    • progress reports (necessary for protocol renewal)
  62. 3 parts Husbandry staff role:
    • Provides food,water, clean cage environments
    • First line of defense for animal welfare - most familiar with the animals in their care
    • Have a more frequent presence in the facility
  63. 3 general forms of record keeping:
    • Anesthetic records
    • Controlled drug logs
    • Quality control logs
  64. How often are vaporizers certified?
    annually
  65. How are autoclaves and sterilizers maintained?
    Quality control through ampules on quarterly basis
  66. Compliance monitoring ensures 4 things:
    • sterile techniques are followed
    • proper training of employess
    • manipulations are performed to approved protocols
    • quality control measures are followed
  67. Amyloidosis is associated with which infrequently used research animal?
    White peking ducks
  68. Atherosclerosis is associated with which 3 infrequently used research animal(s)
    • Homing and Racer pigeons - some breeds are susceptible and others are resistant
    • Japanese quail
    • Collared Lemming
  69. Slender louse of pigeons
    Columbicola columbae
  70. Turkeys are occasionally used in what 2 types of research
    • cardiomyopathy with endocardial febroelastosis
    • Hereditary muscular dystrophy
  71. The White leghorn chicken is occasionally used in what 4 types of research?
    • Hereditary Muscular Dystrophy
    • Hashimoto thyroiditis
    • Gout
    • Delayed neurotoxicity
  72. Which animal has scent glands ventral to each eye?
    Blue Duikker (miniature S. African antelope)
  73. Which animal has naturally occurring sickle-shaped RBCs?
    Genet
  74. Which animal is used in vertical transmission of rabies and canine distemper research?
    Striped Skunk
  75. Which animal has non-retractable claws and is an induced ovulator?
    New World Mink
  76. What research is the New World Mink used for?
    Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease
  77. Which animal is used for research on Lepromatous leprosy?
    nine banded armadillo
  78. What is special about the nine banded armadillo's offspring?
    Regular production of 4-8 monozygotic offspring (identical)
  79. Which animal has footpads that can be formed into vacuum cups for climbing?
    Rock Hyraz
  80. What is the Rock Hyraz used for in research?
    • reproductive physiology, endocrinology (abdominal testes)
    • naturally occurring gastric ulcers
  81. Which animal was banned by the USDA due to it harboring avian and bovine tuberculosis?
    Brush Tail Possum
  82. In which animal is muscular dystrophy reversible by vitamin supplementation?
    Short Tailed Wallaby
  83. Which animal is used in carcinogenesis in embryonic mammalian systems research
    Mouse Opossum
  84. Why is it important not to dislodge mouse opossum from the circular mammar?
    Since they have no pouch, the young cling to a circle of teat on the abdomen. If dislodge they cannot reattach and will die
  85. What is the only north american marsupial?
    Opossom (Didelphis virginana)
  86. How many teeth does an opossum have?
    52 the most of any animal
  87. Why is the opossum used in immunological studies?
    born without any lymphocytes
  88. What  3 etiologies are opossums naturally resistant to:
    rabies, snake venom, mycobacterium sp.
  89. What etiologies are opossum naturally affected with?
    Leptospira spp, Borreila recurrentis Streptococcus viridians adn pyogenes, salmonellosis and tularemia
  90. Why is the opossum used in esophageal burn research?
    musculature resembles humans
  91. What animal requires sand baths
    Kangaroo rat
  92. Which family has 5 genera that all are nocturnal and have external fur-lined cheek pouches
    Heteromyidae
  93. Which animal is used in research of hibernation and hepatomas induced by viral hepatitis?
    Wood Chuck/Ground Hog/Marmot
  94. Which animal is used in research of gallstones associated with high cholesterol diets?
    Prairie dog
  95. What social hierarchy do prairie dogs live in?
    towns
  96. Which animal is used in research of Leshmaniasis and has separate thymus glands in cervical and mediastinal areas?
    Degu (Octodon degu) Trumpet-tailed Rat
  97. What animal does not have a vaginal closure membrane?
    Nutria
  98. Chinchilla gestation:
    111 days
  99. Why is the chinchilla used in hearing research?
    They do not experience aging deafness
  100. What is the only mammal that live eusocially?
    naked mole rat
  101. What is a eusocial colony?
    1 dominant queen and 1- 2 breeding males with 100-300 closely related sterile underlings
  102. What happens when the dominant female naked mole rat is removed?
    The succeeding female's testosterone increases sharply.
  103. What does the naked mole rat use for digging?
    procumbent incisors
  104. What is the only muridae that can eat solid food at birth
    Egyptian Spiny mouse
  105. What animal is used in Rift Valley Fever research?
    Niles Grass Rat
  106. What animal is the only animal model for antral adenocarcinoma research?
    Multimammuate mouse
  107. Which 3 infrequently used research animals form  monogamous pairs?
    • Multimammuate mouse
    • Grasshopper mouse
    • Deer mouse
  108. Which is the newest animal used as a model for Hantaan Virus?
    Striped Field Mouse
  109. Which 2 animals are susceptible to ringtail?
    • African White-tailed Rat
    • Cotton Rat
  110. Which animals diving reflex is not inhibited by anesthesia?
    Muskrat
  111. What animal's shrill alarm sounds like a "mini wolf"
    Grasshopper mouse
  112. What animal is used in periodontitis research due to its immediate response to a high sucrose diet by forming dental caries?
    Rice Rat
  113. What 4 research is the Deer mouse used in?
    • Hantaan virus - natural reservoir
    • Trypansomiasis in humans
    • Mouse Hepatitis - resistant
  114. What is NIDR?
    Naval Institute of Dental Research
  115. What research is the African White-tailed rat used in?
    spontaneous diabetes mellitus without obesity
  116. What animal is the natural host for Brucella neotomae?
    Wood Rat
  117. Which animal has an ear valve that regulates the size of the opening?
    Wood Lemming
  118. Which act governs Infrequent Lab animals and why?
    They are governed by the Animal Welfare Act because they are considered "wild" animals.
  119. Which animal is naturally free from most common latent murine diseases?
    Vesper mouse
  120. What area of research is the Vesper mouse used?
    Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever - Machupovirus
  121. Which animal is the only seasonally color changing rodent?
    Collared Lemming
  122. What is the steppe lemming used for?
    control in pox studies - naturally resistant to ectromelia
  123. What disease is the Collared Lemming highly susceptible to?
    Brucella suis
  124. Rabbits/Hares
    Order:
    Family:
    • Lagomorpha
    • Leporidae
  125. Rabbit facts:
    • 1)social animals
    • 2)dig burrows
    • 3)make nest lined with fur
    • 4)altricial young
    • 5)susceptible to myxomatosis
    • 6)warrens
  126. Hare facts:
    • 1)  usually solitary
    • 2)do not dig burrows
    • 3) rest in depressions called a form
    • 4) precocious young
    • 5) generally larger than rabbits
    • 6) not susceptible to myxomatosis
  127. What is myxomatosis characterized by?
    Horn like growths
  128. 4 advantages of rabbits use in research
    • 1) good antibody producers
    • 2) large body of research already done on rabbits
    • 3) large enough for some major surgical procedures
    • 4) some genetically unique strains available
  129. 4 disadvantages of rabbit use in research
    • 1) variable response to anethesia
    • 2) more prone to cardiovascular failure
    • 3) prone to stress disease like coccidiosis
    • 4) susceptible to Pasteurella which reduces gaseous exchange
  130. What parasympatholytic agent are rabbits resistant to?
    atropine
  131. Rabbit life span
    5-10 years
  132. Rabbit commercial life span
    2-3 years
  133. Laboratory rabbit life span
    few days to several years
  134. 5 traits of Rabbit disposition and behavior
    • 1) alert and docile - adapt well to cages
    • 2) frightened animals kick, scream, jump
    • 3) occasionally get attack rabbits
    • 4) play with toys, water bottle, feeders, lickers
    • 5) males spray urine and will fight with other males
  135. What type of incisors to rabbits have?
    hipsodontic
  136. Rabbit Dental formula:
    I2/1, C0/0, P3/2, m3/3
  137. Rabbit temperature:
    99.1 - 103 F
  138. Rabbit Heart rate
    250 - 300 bpm (@180bpm under anesthesia)
  139. Rabbit Hematocrit
    40-45%
  140. 2 Rabbit Digestion
    • 1) herbivorous
    • 2) extensive cecum to accommodate fermentative digestion
  141. Rabbit activity
    crepuscular - active at dust and dawn
  142. Rabbit Feces
    • hard, dark round balls
    • coprophagy of special pellets produced at dawn: softer/mucus covered - ingested to reinoculate gut with beneficial bacteria
  143. Rabbit estrus length
    2-4 week period - red vulva
  144. Rabbit puberty
    5-9 months
  145. Rabbit Estrous cycle
    • polyestrous - at any given time a follicle can develop
    • Ovulation is induced
  146. Rabbit act of parturition
    • prior to kindling doe will build nest and line by pulling her fur
    • kindling
    • can be split up to 3 days apart (a function related to hiding from predators)
  147. Difference in appearance of male and female
    • Females - dulap
    • Males - head is big relative to body
  148. Rabbit Urine
    • normally creamy yellow - due to calcium crystals
    • pH = 8.2
    • moderate proteinuria is normal
  149. Estrus doe behavior
    hops around and rubs chin on cage
  150. Rabbit Copulation
    • 1) take doe to buck's cage
    • 2) copulation is very quick @ 30 sec
    • 3) buck will scream and fall backward when done
  151. Rabbit gestation
    30-32 days (45 days in hares)
  152. When do you palpate for pregnancy in a rabbit?
    10-14 days after breeding
  153. Baby rabbits are called:
    Baby hares are called:
    • bunnies or kits
    • leverets
  154. Rabbit litter size
    3-10

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