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  1. What is the etiology for heartworms
    Dirofilaria immitis
  2. The mosquito is considered what for the transmission of heartworms
    Biological vector
  3. What are the three most common mosquitoes that transmit heartworms
    • Culex
    • Aedes
    • Anopheles
  4. What is the most likely to carry microfilaria a male or female mosquito
    • female
    • males usually die or are ineffective
  5. what are the three most common places in the U.S. for heartworms
    • Gulf coast
    • East Coast
    • Great lakes
  6. what are the 5 methods for diagnosing hw with blood samples
    • direct smear of blood - 64%
    • modified knotts method - 84%
    • Micropore filtration method - 84%
    • Microhematicrit tube (PCV) - least
    • Occult test - most effective (antibody/antigen)
  7. What are the 4 methods for diagnosing heartworms
    • blood sample
    • history
    • radiology
    • echocardiography
  8. what are two test used to check for microfilaria
    • Difil test
    • blood smear
  9. what is often confused for microfilaria
    Acanthocelonema reconditum
  10. What should the length of the heart be in comparison to the ribs on an x-ray
    3-5 ribs
  11. how many females heartworms does it take to produce a positive antigen test
    3 or more
  12. what is the substance that the antigen test is looking for
    Glycoprotein substance
  13. This test is used to test for heartworms in dogs
    Antigen occult test
  14. this occult test is commonly used in cats for the test of heartworms, but it is less specific
    antibody test
  15. What is the percent of dogs that have adult hw and are negative for microfilaria
  16. what is the percent of dogs that have circulating microfilaria and no adult hw's in the heart
  17. What is the average life span for adult heartworms
    7 years
  18. what is the average life span for microfilaria
    4-5 years
  19. what are three drugs that will react with microfilaria
    • Milbemycin oxime (interceptor/sentinel)
    • Dichlorvos (Task)
    • Diethylcarbamizine citrate (Filariabits)
  20. How many microfilaria can a mosquito hold without dying
  21. How long is the heartworm life cycle
    6 months
  22. What is the nick name for heartworms
    • 3 month disease
    • since S5a is in the pulmonary artery for 80 days before maturing
  23. What are the stages that molt in the mosquito
    S1, S2 and S3
  24. What are the day that it would take a mosquito to molt
    30 C (86 F)
    26 C (78.8 F)
    22 C (71.6 F)
    18 C (64.4 F)
    12 C (53.6 F)
    • 8
    • 12
    • 17
    • 29
    • death
  25. how many heartworms does the average dog have post mortem
  26. How many heartworms does the average cat have post mortem
  27. what is the % of immature S5a that will molt to S5 in a dog
  28. When an animal is exposed to a disease and is reintroduced to it the body is said to have
    • Immunerecognition
    • less of the disease is said to survive because the body will recognize the antigen protein
  29. What is Caval Syndrome
    Considered a Class 4 in heartworm severity. The heartworms backup into the vena cava resulting in ascities which is blood in the peritoneal cavity
  30. what consitutes right and left side heart failure
    • right side - heartworms
    • Left side - mitral valve inefficiencies
  31. What is considered the most common indoor mosquito and what is its nick name
    • Culex
    • Dual mosquito
  32. What are the symptoms/clinical signs for the different classes of heartworm severity
    • Class 1 - asymptomatic/mild signs
    • class 2 - moderate clinical signs/radiographic abnormaliites
    • class 3 - severe clinical/radiographic abnormalities/right side congestive heart failure
    • class 4 - everything in class 3/ caval syndrome
  33. What are somethings that are noted from blood work in a dog with heartworms
    • eosinophilea/basophilia - most common
    • Neutrophilic leukocytosis - seen with pulmonary thromboembolisms
    • thrmbocytopenia - common in lung and arterial diseases
    • hemoglobinurea - caval syndrome and pulmonary disease
  34. what are some preventatives for heartworms
    • Diethylcarbamazine citrate - pfizer
    • ivermectin - Merial
    • Milbemycin oxime - Novartis
    • Selamectin - Pfizer
    • Moxidectin - Bayer
    • Thiacetarsamide sodium - Marial
  35. What are some treatments for microfilaria
    • Ivermectin (Ivermec)
    • Selamectin
    • Dithiazine iodide (Dizan) - Only one FDA approved
    • Levamizole
    • Fenthion
  36. What are two Adulticides used today
    • Immiticide (Melarsomine dihydrochloride)
    • Caparsolate (Thiacetarsamide sodium)
Card Set:
2014-12-01 17:33:38
canine feline

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